A ‘key trend’ in latest Arab Youth Survey is ‘decline in news consumption’

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Updated 22 September 2022

A ‘key trend’ in latest Arab Youth Survey is ‘decline in news consumption’

  • 14th annual survey reveals a number of trends and insights across six themes: identity, livelihood, politics, global citizenship, lifestyle and aspirations

DUBAI: Dubai-based PR agency ASDA’A BCW has published the results of its 14th annual Arab Youth Survey, described as the largest independent survey of its kind.

This year’s findings are grouped under six themes: identity, livelihood, politics, global citizenship, lifestyle and aspirations.

Having grown up in the internet age, it is perhaps no surprise that Arab youths are avid users of social media and other online services. In terms of the most popular social media platforms across the region, WhatsApp came out on top, with 82 percent of those surveyed saying they use it daily, followed by Facebook (72 percent), Instagram (61 percent), YouTube (53 percent), TikTok (50 percent), Snapchat (46 percent), Twitter (33 percent) and LinkedIn (12 percent).

WhatsApp is even more popular in Saudi Arabia that it is in the wider region, with 98 percent of people surveyed in the country using it daily. Snapchat was the second-most popular platform in the Kingdom, with 84 percent of people using it daily, followed by YouTube (83 percent), Twitter (73 percent), TikTok (60 percent) and Facebook (55 percent).

Commenting on the potentially controversial inclusion on the survey of WhatsApp, traditionally thought of as an instant messaging service, as a social media platform, Sunil John, founder of ASDA’A BCW and BCW’s president for the Middle East and North Africa, told Arab News: “WhatsApp has evolved as a strong social-networking platform — for families and businesses — and is often the first source of news for many. It plays an important role in the lives of people as a social-networking tool, too.”

Although TikTok ranked relatively low in terms of daily use across the Middle East, usage has more than doubled in the past two years, from 21 percent in 2020 to 50 percent this year. In Saudi Arabia, TikTok use almost tripled over the same period, from 24 percent in 2020 to 60 percent.

Meanwhile Facebook and Twitter have experienced the greatest declines in regional use during that time: Facebook went from 85 percent to 72 percent, and Twitter from 42 percent to 33 percent.

In the Kingdom, Snapchat, Instagram and Twitter grew in popularity over the past two years, but daily use of Facebook declined, from 82 percent to 55 percent.

“One of the key trends we’ve noticed is the decline in news consumption, which peaked during the pandemic when people were largely confined to their homes,” said John.

The trend was evident across all channels, although social media continues to be the leading source of news, for 65 percent of those surveyed. This is a small increase from last year’s 61 percent but much lower than the figures for 2019 and 2020, when 79 and 80 percent respectively.

The next most popular source of news was television, on 45 percent, followed by online news portals (32 percent) and printed media (9 percent).

Social media was also the most popular news source in Saudi Arabia, with 43 percent of people relying on it, followed by TV (27 percent) and news websites (23 percent).

Young people do indeed seem to be consuming less news compared with two years ago, when they were confined to their homes during pandemic lockdowns, said John, and the decline is not exclusive to social media.

“The decline appears to be part of an overall downward trend in news consumption, irrespective of the channel or platform,” he added.

“2020 was arguably an outlier in terms of news-consumption habits. A drop-off as people returned to normal life was to be expected.

“It’s also true that young people are consuming media for different things these days, such as entertainment and shopping. We’re also seeing the emergence of new types of content, such as podcasts, which are often hybrid in nature and harder to classify.”

It is also possible that “young people are ‘tuning out’ from the sheer volume of news they are receiving these days, much of it negative,” John added.

Despite the popularity of social media as a news source, social media influencers and the platforms themselves are among the least trusted sources of news, at just 54 percent and 66 percent respectively. TV news has the highest trust rating, with 84 percent of people confident about it, followed by print and online news portals, both on 71 percent.

In Saudi Arabia, however, social media, TV and online news portals all attracted similar levels of trust.

There could be various reasons for the high levels of trust in TV news across the Arab world, according to John, “such as the depth and variety of commentary that TV offers, and the larger budgets for news production that TV stations normally command.”

Moreover, “the growth of TV is also, of course, technological, with the increasing penetration of the internet around the region allowing more people to access streaming services on their mobile phones.”

Although online news portals and print media are among the least-used sources of news, the survey found high levels of trust in both.

“Traditional newspapers are read much less than before in their printed form but they are nevertheless respected for their journalistic pedigree and as news brands,” John said.

“This may explain why online news sites, at least the online versions of what were printed newspapers, enjoy high levels of trust.”

The emergence of “successful news brands specifically designed for the web and social media, and catering to a younger audience, such as NowThis, Vice and Gawker,” could be another reason for the trust placed in online news sites he added.

On the other hand “social media platforms aren’t news platforms by nature,” John said.

“First and foremost, they have been designed to share content and to network. So, they are good at delivering the news but not necessarily coming up with news that people trust. The rise of trusted social media influencers, however, may change this.”

The decline in news consumption might also be a result of young Arabs using the internet primarily for other reasons.

“Arab youth are increasingly consuming media for different things: Entertainment, for example, and shopping,” said John.

In this year’s survey, 89 percent of respondents said they shop online a few times each month compared with only 50 percent in 2018.

Similarly, the number of young adults in Saudi Arabia who shop online has nearly doubled in the past five years. In 2018, 58 percent of people said they bought products and services via websites and social media apps at least once a month; this year virtually all the respondents said they shop digitally.

“This year’s research found a marked increase in the number of young adults saying they use websites and social media apps to shop for goods and services at least a few times a month,” said John. “And this trend is not only confined to the wealthier Gulf Cooperation Council countries.”

The 14th Annual ASDA’A BCW Arab Youth Survey is based on face-to-face interviews and surveys conducted with men and women between the ages of 18 and 24 in 50 cities across 17 Arab states. Visit arabyouthsurvey.com for the full results.


67 journalists, media workers killed on the job this year

Updated 09 December 2022

67 journalists, media workers killed on the job this year

  • The Brussels-based IFJ recorded five deaths of journalists amid this year’s political crisis in Pakistan
  • Group called on governments to take more concrete action to protect journalists

BRUSSELS: Russia’s war in Ukraine, chaos in Haiti and rising violence by criminal groups in Mexico contributed to a 30 percent spike in the number of journalists killed doing their work in 2022 over the previous year, according to a new report released Friday.
The International Federation of Journalists says that 67 journalists and media staff have been killed around the world so far this year, up from 47 last year.
The Brussels-based group also tallied 375 journalists currently imprisoned for their work, with the most in China, Myanmar and Turkiye. Last year’s report listed 365 journalists behind bars.
With the number of media workers killed on the rise, the group called on governments to take more concrete action to protect journalists and free journalism.
“The failure to act will only embolden those who seek to suppress the free flow of information and undermine the ability of people to hold their leaders to account, including in ensuring that those with power and influence do not stand in the way of open and inclusive societies,” IFJ General Secretary Anthony Bellanger said in a statement.
More media workers were killed covering the war in Ukraine – 12 in total — than in any other country this year, according to the IFJ. Most were Ukrainian but also included those of other nationalities such as American documentary filmmaker Brent Renaud. Many deaths occurred in the first chaotic weeks of the war, though threats to journalists continue as the fighting drags on.
The IFJ said “the rule by terror of criminal organizations in Mexico, and the breakdown of law and order in Haiti, have also contributed to the surge in killings.” 2022 has been one of the deadliest ever for journalists in Mexico, which is now considered the most dangerous country for reporters outside a war zone.
The group recorded five deaths of journalists amid this year’s political crisis in Pakistan, and warned of new threats to journalists in Colombia and continued danger for journalists in the Philippines despite new leadership there.
It also called out the shooting of Al Jazeera journalist Shireen Abu Akleh as she was reporting from a Palestinian refugee camp. The Arab network this week formally asked the International Criminal Court to investigate her death.
The Brussels-based IFJ represents 600,000 media professionals from trade unions and associations in more than 140 countries. The report was released on the eve of the United Nations’ Human Rights Day.


Meta battles US antitrust agency over future of virtual reality

Updated 09 December 2022

Meta battles US antitrust agency over future of virtual reality

  • FTC sued Meta in July to stop the tech giant's acquisition of virtual reality app developer Within
  • Government victory could crimp Meta’s ability to maneuver in an area of emerging technology

WASHINGTON: The Biden administration on Thursday accused Meta Platforms Inc. of trying to buy its way to dominance in the metaverse, kicking off a high-profile trial to try to prevent the Facebook parent from buying virtual reality app developer Within Inc.
The FTC sued in July to stop the deal, saying Meta’s acquisition of Within would “tend to create a monopoly” in the market for virtual reality (VR) fitness apps. It has asked the judge to order a preliminary injunction that would halt the proposed transaction.
In an opening statement, FTC lawyer Abby Dennis said the Within acquisition was part of Meta’s bid to acquire new and more diverse virtual reality users, including customers of Within’s popular subscription-based virtual reality workout app Supernatural.
That would complement Meta’s existing virtual reality users, who tend to skew young and male, and be more focused on gaming, Dennis added.
“Meta could have chosen to use all its vast resources and capabilities to build its own dedicated VR fitness app, and it was planning on doing that before it acquired Within,” Dennis said, pointing to a plan from early 2021.
The plan, Operation Twinkie, involved expanding a rhythm game app called Beat Saber that the company acquired in 2019 into the fitness space via a proposed partnership with digital fitness company Peloton, Dennis said.
She cited an email from Chief Executive Mark Zuckerberg saying he was “bullish” on fitness and calling the proposed partnership with Peloton “awesome.”
Lawyers for Meta and Within argued that the FTC did a poor job of defining the relevant market and said the companies compete with a range of fitness content, not just VR-dedicated fitness apps.
Meta’s lawyers also disputed that plans for a Meta-owned VR fitness app had proceeded beyond low-level “brainstorming” and argued that the FTC underestimated the competition in the market it had defined, citing the potential for fellow tech giants Apple Inc, Alphabet Inc’s Google and Bytedance to join the fray.
Rade Stojsavljevic, who manages Meta’s in-house VR app developer studios, testified that he had proposed the tie-up between Beat Saber and Peloton but did not develop a formal plan and never discussed the idea with either party.
Internal documents from early 2021 that were displayed in court showed Stojsavljevic proposing acquisitions of VR developers before they could be “cannibalized” by competitors and discussing pressure from Zuckerberg to “get aggressive” in response to reports of a prospective Apple headset.
The trial, scheduled through Dec. 20, will serve as a test of the FTC’s bid to head off what it sees as a repeat of the company acquiring small upcoming would-be rivals and effectively buying its way to dominance, this time in the nascent virtual and augmented reality markets.
The FTC is separately trying to force Meta to unwind two previous acquisitions, Instagram and WhatsApp, in a lawsuit filed in 2020. Both were in relatively new markets at the time the companies were purchased.
PRESSURE TO PRODUCE HIT APPS
A government victory could crimp Meta’s ability to maneuver in an area of emerging technology — virtual and augmented reality — that Zuckerberg has identified as the “next generation of computing.”
If blocked from making acquisitions in the space, Meta would face greater pressure to produce its own hit apps and would give up the gains — in terms of revenue, talent, data and control — associated with bringing innovative developers in-house.
Within developed Supernatural, which it advertises as a “complete fitness service” with “expert coaches,” “beautiful destinations” and “workouts choreographed to the best music available.”
It is available only on Meta’s Quest devices, which are headsets offering immersive digital visuals and audio that market research firm IDC estimates capture 90 percent of global shipments in the virtual reality hardware market.
The majority of the more than 400 apps available in the Quest app store are produced by external developers. Meta owns the most popular virtual reality app in the Quest app store, Beat Saber, the app it was considering expanding with the Peloton partnership.
The social media company agreed to buy Within in October 2021, a day after changing its name from Facebook to Meta, signalling its ambition to build an immersive virtual environment known as the metaverse.
Zuckerberg will be a witness in the trial. Other potential witnesses are Within CEO Chris Milk and Meta Chief Technology Officer Andrew Bosworth, who runs the company’s metaverse-oriented Reality Labs unit.
The trial is at the US District Court for the Northern District of California.

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Twitter to introduce new controls for ad placements

Updated 09 December 2022

Twitter to introduce new controls for ad placements

  • Companies will have the option to prevent their ads appearing under certain tweets
  • Move hopes to reassure advertisers following rise in hate speech

LONDON: Twitter Inc. will roll out new controls as soon as next week to let companies prevent their ads from appearing above or below tweets containing certain keywords, the social media platform told advertisers in an email on Thursday.
The new controls are part of Twitter’s effort to reassure and lure back advertisers that have pulled ads off the platform since it was purchased in October by billionaire Elon Musk, amid reports from civil rights groups that hate speech has risen since the acquisition and after several banned or suspended accounts were reinstated.
Twitter earns nearly 90 percent of its revenue from selling digital ads. Musk recently attributed a “massive drop in revenue” to civil rights organizations that have pressured brands to pause their Twitter ads.
In a call on Thursday with an advertising industry group, a Twitter representative said the platform was considering bringing its content moderators, many of whom are contracted through third-party vendors, in-house, according to a source familiar with the remarks.
The Twitter representative said bringing content moderators in-house would allow the platform to invest more in moderation for non-English languages, according to the source.
The comments come after Twitter’s new head of trust and safety, Ella Irwin, told Reuters that the platform would lean more heavily on automated content moderation. Irwin also said that Twitter’s recent layoffs, which cut 50 percent of staff, did not significantly hurt its moderation team and those working on critical areas like child safety.
The email to advertisers on Thursday, which was reviewed by Reuters, said a revamped version of Twitter’s subscription service called Twitter Blue would begin rolling out on Friday.
The subscription will allow accounts to receive a verified check mark. Accounts for individuals will get a blue check, while gold and gray check marks will denote business and government accounts, according to the email.
The subscription price will be $7 per month on the web and $11 per month on Apple devices, the email said.
Twitter also told advertisers that it removed ads from profiles mentioned in a Washington Post article on Tuesday, which reported that ads had appeared on the Twitter accounts of white nationalists.
Snap Inc, which owns photo messaging app Snapchat, has paused its advertising on Twitter while it investigates the issue, a spokesperson told Reuters.
The accounts were not part of “amnesty reinstatements,” Twitter’s email said, referring to Musk’s tweet last month that Twitter would reinstate suspended accounts that have not broken the law.
“We will not be reinstating bad actors, spam accounts and users that engaged in criminal/illegal activity,” Twitter’s note to advertisers said.
Twitter, which has lost many members of its communications team, did not immediately respond to a request for comment.


Pakistani journalist’s killing in Kenya a pre-meditated murder – report

Updated 09 December 2022

Pakistani journalist’s killing in Kenya a pre-meditated murder – report

  • TV journalist Arshad Sharif earlier fled Pakistan citing threats to his life
  • Team of Pakistani probers believe it was a case of pre-meditated murder

ISLAMABAD: A team set up by the Pakistani government to probe the killing of a well-known Pakistani journalist in Nairobi said it found several contradictions in the version given by Kenyan authorities, and believes it was a case of pre-meditated murder.
TV journalist Arshad Sharif, who had fled Pakistan citing threats to his life, was shot dead in Nairobi in October. Kenyan officials said it was a case of mistaken identity and police hunting car thieves opened fire on his vehicle as it drove through a roadblock without stopping.
A two-member fact-finding team from Pakistan that traveled to Kenya and conducted a number of interviews, examined and reconstructed the crime scene and examined the deceased’s phones and computers, said in a 600-page report that Sharif’s killing was a pre-planned murder.
“Both the members of the (fact-finding team) have a considered understanding that it is a case of planned targeted assassination with transnational characters rather than a case of mistaken identity,” said the report, copies of which were submitted to Pakistan’s Supreme Court.
“It is more probable that the firing was done, after taking proper aim, at a stationary vehicle,” it said.
Kenyan authorities declined comment on the specifics of the report.
“The investigation into the matter is still ongoing, so there is not much I can tell,” said Resila Onyango, spokesperson for the Kenya National Police Service.
A multi-agency team is conducting the investigation, he said, adding that the team will apprise authorities when they are done with the probe.
The chairperson of the Kenyan police watchdog Independent Police Oversight Authority, Anne Makori, also said investigations were still ongoing.
Pakistan’s Interior Minister Rana Sanaullah had said before the release of the report that Sharif’s body had bruises and torture marks, suggested it was a targeted killing.
The fact-finding team highlighted one wound in particular on Sharif’s back, saying it appeared to have been inflicted from relatively close range.
The report noted there was no corresponding penetration mark of a bullet on the seat on which Sharif was sitting when the shooting purportedly took place, calling it a “ballistic impossibility.”
“The injury had to have been caused either before the journalist got into the vehicle, or the shot was fired from a relatively close range, possibly from inside the vehicle, and almost certainly not a moving vehicle,” the report said.
Sharif had fled from Pakistan citing threats to his life after the government registered several treason cases against him.
One of the treason cases stemmed from reporting Sharif did that led to an accusation he had spread a call from an official in a previous government, led by former cricket star Imran Khan, for members of the armed forces to mutiny.
Both Sharif and the official in the previous government denied inciting mutiny.
Former prime minister Khan said Sharif had been murdered for his journalistic work. He and his successor Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif, not related to the journalist, had called for a judicial investigation.
The fact-finding team’s report also pointed out apparent contradictions in the autopsy reports in Kenya and Pakistan.
The post-mortem report in Pakistan identified 12 injuries on Sharif’s body whereas the Kenyan report identified just two injuries pertaining to gunshot wounds.
The fact-finding team report said doctors believed the injures may be the result of torture or a struggle, but it could not be established until verified by the doctor who conducted the post mortem in Kenya.


Australian court dismisses suit against Google over personal data use

Updated 09 December 2022

Australian court dismisses suit against Google over personal data use

  • Proceedings were initiated by the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission in July 2020
  • ‘The court also noted that Google did not reduce account holders’ rights under the privacy policy’

Australia’s competition regulator said on Friday its lawsuit against Alphabet Inc’s Google that alleged consumers were misled about expanded use of personal data for targeted advertising had been dismissed by a court.
The proceedings, initiated by the Australian Competition & Consumer Commission in July 2020, alleged Google did not explicitly take consent from users about a change made in 2016 that combined personal information in Google accounts with activity on non-Google sites that use its technology to display advertisements.
The Federal Court, however, found that the notification which allowed users to accept policy changes was not misleading since Google “only implemented the steps with their (users’) informed consent,” the regulator said.
“The court also noted that Google did not reduce account holders’ rights under the privacy policy.”
Google Australia did not immediately respond to a request for comment.