Kuwait’s Expo 2020 Dubai pavilion plots a course to a more sustainable future 

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Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)
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Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)
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Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)
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Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)
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Updated 16 December 2021

Kuwait’s Expo 2020 Dubai pavilion plots a course to a more sustainable future 

  • Kuwait has risen, with flair and ambition, to the occasion of the first World Expo to be held in the Arab world
  • Designed by Italian architect Marco Pestalozza, the pavilion is a nod to Kuwait City’s urban development

DUBAI:  Since their inception in the mid-19th century, World Expos have provided countries of all sizes and degrees of wealth with a rare opportunity to curate their own national narrative, and tailor their preferred image — past, present and future — before a global audience.

Specific elements of a nation’s heritage, culture and economy are distilled, refined and placed on display in often exquisite and sprawling pavilions designed to reflect the country’s distinct national character and qualities. It is by communicating in this way, through their pavilions, that participating nations define themselves on the world stage.

Taken as a whole, a World Expo can therefore perhaps best be described as a rose-tinted mirror of civilization at a specific point in time. This “greatest show” is an amalgamation of nations in their idealized state; the world depicted as it would like to be seen, and everyone is invited.




Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)

Kuwait has risen, with flair and ambition, to the occasion of the first World Expo to be held in the Arab world. It is clear from the grand scale of the small Gulf kingdom’s presence at Expo 2020 Dubai that a great deal of thought and attention went into its pavilion design, content and messaging.

Kuwait City has a history of telling its preferred story through its architecture. It has undergone a number of significant transformations since the advent of oil urbanization, often through ambitious, state-led development initiatives that have consistently sought to replace the old with the new.

After 1950, almost all pre-oil structures in Kuwait City’s historic urban center were transformed to make way for a new, modern metropolis. And since 2003, a renewed cycle of development has replaced that modernist landscape with something newer still. Kuwait’s ambition at Expo 2020 is in keeping with its past, present and future.




The funnel at the Kuwait pavilion at the Expo 2020 in Dubai is a nod to its history of urban development. (AFP)

Designed by Italian architect Marco Pestalozza, the 5,600-square-meter Kuwaiti pavilion sits gracefully on a large central plot near Al-Wasl in the Sustainability District, distinguished by its irregular, roughly circular shape and gold exterior panels featuring geometric designs.

The architecture of the pavilion is a nod to Kuwait’s history of urban development. A funnel, modeled after the iconic towers built soon after Kuwait gained independence in 1961 to store desalinated water, occupies the center of the pavilion, extending from the roof to ground level.

During the day, the pavilion resembles a nugget of unprocessed gold, textured so as to echo Kuwait’s undulating desert terrain, complete with screens displaying the familiar image of camels loping across sand dunes.

At night, the pavilion is transformed. Gold no longer dominates; instead, a blue spotlight illuminates “the envelope” — the name for the wide, sloping funnel at the top of the pavilion.




The funnel at the Kuwait pavilion at the Expo 2020 in Dubai is a nod to its history of urban development. (AFP)

The marked aesthetic transition of the building from day to night is an example of the simple yet effective ways in which the pavilion conveys its central themes of connectivity, sustainability and a diversification away from oil.

Oil was discovered in commercial quantities in Kuwait in 1938 and the industry was launched in 1946. In 1950, Kuwait’s ruler announced plans to use the country’s new, and exponentially increasing, oil wealth to make Kuwait City “the best planned and most socially progressive city in the Middle East,” unveiling a state-led modernization project hinging on the twin pillars of urban development and social welfare.

Upon entering the pavilion, visitors are greeted by a large, curved screen on which a film that explores Kuwaiti heritage, reveals the kingdom’s present and offers a glimpse into its future plays on a loop. The story is told from the perspective of an eight-year-old girl, which illustrates Kuwait’s emphasis on promoting the role of future generations of women as part of its commitment to social progress.




Visitors to the pavilion explore Kuwait’s cultural heritage and rich legacy. (Supplied)

From the ground floor, visitors ascend a curved staircase and are greeted by another video, this time offering a breathtaking vista of present-day Kuwait City, as viewed from the Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah Causeway. In this film, Kuwait’s rich sea-life also features prominently, including shots of dolphins playing in the surf.

From the present, the story told by the pavilion shifts to the country’s past. Visitors are shepherded through a series of exhibits exploring Kuwait’s cultural heritage and rich legacy, reaching back about 7,000 years. Painstakingly recreated artifacts from Failaka Island, the name of which is thought to be derived from the ancient Greek word for “outpost,” are a particular highlight.

These images contrast with the story of Kuwait as a post-oil, progressive nation, outlining the substantial changes that the country has undergone. From port town to oil power, fledgling Arab democracy and a vibrant cultural society, to the Iraqi invasion and Kuwait’s economic crash, there is no question that the national story is as varied as it is rich.




Kuwait’s progress as a post-oil nation is reflected in its presence at the World Expo. (Supplied)

Besides Qatar, Kuwait is the only Gulf Cooperation Council country whose pavilion is situated in the expo’s Sustainability District — an unusual choice, perhaps, given the ostensible contradiction between its economic mainstay, the oil industry, and the necessity of moving on to other, more sustainable sources of energy.

However, Kuwait’s pavilion designers freely acknowledge this seeming dichotomy by underscoring the kingdom’s genuine desire to diversify away from oil. Perhaps more than most, this pavilion offers a snapshot of a nation ready and willing to embrace change in the present as well as the future.

Indeed, the future features prominently in the pavilion’s exhibits. To avoid overuse of touchscreens during the pandemic, the designers elected instead to use motion-detection technology to allow visitors to explore Kuwait’s Vision 2035 without any physical contact with the equipment used.

The seven pillars of Vision 2035 are designed to solidify Kuwait’s leadership in the region, from the diversification of its economy and development of infrastructure and healthcare, to a focus on the nation’s human capital and global positioning. Sustainability is woven into each of these pillars, just as it is into every facet of the pavilion’s exhibits.

One of the most remarkable aspects of the Kuwaiti pavilion is its emphasis on connectivity, in line with the overall theme of Expo 2020 Dubai: “Connecting Minds, Creating the Future.” Underlying the astonishing architecture and captivating narrative lies the fundamental goal of connecting people with one another, with the environment, and with the best aspects of humanity.




All generations are catered for at the pavilion, reflecting Kuwait’s youth and energy. (Supplied)

While this is, of course, a nod to the theme of the Expo of today, it also references Kuwait’s history as a connector of peoples and cultures. As an active and busy port, its capital has been a cosmopolitan, connecting city for centuries.

This continues to be the case. Kuwait’s Public Authority for Civil Information estimates the country’s population was about 4.4 million in 2019, with non-Kuwaitis accounting for nearly 70 percent of this total.

Kuwait’s dialect, food and music all contain evidence of rich influences from Iraq, Iran, Zanzibar, Oman and the other cultures the Kuwaiti people came into contact with during hundreds of years of trade, travel, immigration and acculturation.

The story Kuwait chooses to tell about itself through its pavilion at Expo 2020 is multifaceted, mirroring the diverse nature of its society, from its focus on sustainability to empowering its youth to lead the country and its people into the future.

Kuwait has a track record of cultural transformations. At Expo 2020, the nation shows it intends to push ahead with its Vision 2035 development program through the lens of sustainability.

A visit to the pavilion offers guests a more critical understanding of where Kuwait stands today — and, perhaps more importantly, where it is plans to be in the future.

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Ankara, Damascus discuss potential normalization after years of broken in ties

Updated 15 August 2022

Ankara, Damascus discuss potential normalization after years of broken in ties

  • Turkey will continue to temporarily provide security in some northwestern territories in Syria if they normalize bilateral relations, analyst tells Arab News

ANKARA: Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu’s revelation that he met his Syrian counterpart Faisal Mekdad last October on the margins of the Non-Aligned Movement summit hinted at the possibility of Ankara and Damascus seeking political rapprochement after 11 years of a rupture in ties. 

Cavusoglu reportedly talked with his counterpart in Serbia’s capital Belgrade about the need to come to terms with the opposition and the Assad regime in Syria for a lasting peace. 

The Turkish foreign minister emphasized that his country supported Syria’s territorial integrity as “the border integrity, territorial integrity and peace of a country next to us directly affect us.”

The pro-government Turkiye newspaper recently claimed that Assad and Erdogan may hold a telephone conservation after Russian President Vladimir Putin proposed this during his recent meeting with Erdogan in Sochi. However, Cavusoglu denied rumors about any talks between the Syrian and Turkish presidents.

Having conducted four cross-border military operations in Syria since the start of civil war in 2011 to clear its border from terror groups, Turkey also has a significant military presence through observation posts in northern parts of the country. 

Since 2017, Turkey, Iran and Russia have come together through Astana meetings to try to bring the warring sides in Syria toward finding a permanent solution to the war. 

It is not a secret that the Turkish and Syrian intelligence services have been communicating. 

However, as Turkey has backed rebel groups fighting the Assad regime, the latest signs of a potential normalization of bilateral ties has angered opposition groups who held mass protests in several areas of northern Aleppo to demonstrate their objections, fearing renewed diplomatic contact with the Assad regime. 

Turkey’s bid for peace with the Assad regime might also have repercussions for the fate of more than 3.7 million registered Syrian refugees in Turkey who have become a domestic politic issue due to the economic hardship the country is facing. 

Before the outbreak of the civil war, Turkey and Syria had close relationships at the top level, often exemplified by the famous summer holiday of Syrian President Bashar Assad with his family at Turkey’s Aegean resort town of Bodrum where he also met Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan in 2008. 

“Given the durability of the Assad regime, Ankara has to have a modus vivendi of sorts; in fact, it exists already at the level of intelligence agency chiefs,“ Rich Outzen, senior fellow at Atlantic Council and Jamestown Foundation, told Arab News.  

“The political risk for President Erdogan of a rapid or warm reconciliation is incredibly high, though, so the understanding is likely to be incremental and limited,” Outzen said.  

According to Outzen, botching re-engagement would mean compromising the viability of the Turkish-protected safe zone, leading to a new waves of refugees, or inviting new massacres by Assad among populations Ankara wants to protect and to remain in place. 

“Yet the lack of a modus vivendi is also not sustainable over the long-term, because inevitably pressure will grow internationally and within Turkey for Turkish forces to have a pathway to withdrawal, even if the pathway is measured in multiple years,” he said. 

For that reason, Outzen thinks that fears of a rash or rapid reconciliation or re-engagement are overstated. 

“Putin, of course, pressures Erdogan to re-engage, but Erdogan will in my view resist any but the minimum measures to maintain his own freedom of maneuver in Syria,” he said. “As this week’s protests in the Safe Zone demonstrate, going too fast in this process can prompt a backlash among Syrians in northern Syria and perhaps ultimately in Turkey.” 

According to Soner Cagaptay, director of the Turkish program at the Washington Institute, while Turkey’s endgame in Syria is an Erdogan-Assad handshake, Ankara and Damascus are moving northwestern Syria into a frozen conflict.  

“I don’t think that an arrangement between Turkey and Syria will result in a complete reset of two countries borders and border affairs because many of the Syrians who live in the zones controlled by Turkish-backed forces have been already effectively cleansed by Assad, in some cases twice,” he told Arab News.

“There is zero chance that they would stay in Assad regime-controlled Syria if both leaders shake hands or make exchanges of territories,” he said. 

Cagaptay thinks that Turkey will recognize Assad’s sovereignty over the area, but will continue to temporarily provide security as well as law and order in some in northwestern territories in Syria, while also keeping millions of Sunni Arabs Assad does not want and has no interest in making full citizens again. 

“Assad may even come back to border stations with the Syrian republic flag and might begin to provide some of the social services,” he told Arab News. 

For Cagaptay, the big favor that Turkey is doing for Assad is keeping Syrians refugees inside the country and in northwest Syria under Turkish control, and not forcing them to return to Syria. 

“That is a huge favor to Assad because he used the war in Syria for ethnic engineering. Before the war, Sunni Arabs constituted over two-thirds of the Syrian population, but now they are under half. In return for that favor, Assad can propose to re-ingest the Syrian Kurdish militia YPG under his control. It is a good deal for Erdogan and Turkey,” he said.  

Turkey considers the YPG a national security threat and the extension of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party that has waged a decades-long insurgency against the Turkish state. 

For Aydin Sezer, an Ankara-based analyst, the possibility of re-engagement with the Assad regime will be used for domestic consumption ahead of the approaching election term scheduled for June 2023 at a time of deepening economic turmoil in Turkey.

“There is significant external pressure to make this reconciliation happen, while the economic burden of hosting millions of Syrian refugees inside Turkey and the rising cost of deploying military officers to the observation posts in Syria also make this issue financially important for the internal dynamics,” he told Arab News. 

Turkey has about 5,000 troops within the areas it controls in Syria, along with some 8,000 soldiers around rebel-held Idlib province, whose maintenance is costing Ankara billions of dollars and risks confrontations with Assad and foreign powers over territory violation. 

“Although the rapprochement cannot happen overnight, it is significant that the ruling government as well as the opposition parties have begun discussing it,” Sezer said. 

Erdogan recently hinted at a fresh operation into Syria to create a 30 km-deep safe zone from the border to push back Kurdish militants, but any military activity does not look imminent following several warnings from regional powers.


Israeli armed forces kill Palestinian

Updated 15 August 2022

Israeli armed forces kill Palestinian

  • Mohammed Al-Shaham was left bleeding, and eyewitnesses said the Israelis prevented any attempt to provide him with first aid after he was shot
  • His father Ibrahim said special forces had raided the house, shot his son in the head from close range and left him bleeding on the ground for more than 40 minutes

RAMALLAH: Israeli armed forces killed a 21-year-old Palestinian in northern Jerusalem at dawn on Monday.

Mohammed Al-Shaham was left bleeding, and eyewitnesses said the Israelis prevented any attempt to provide him with first aid after he was shot.

His father Ibrahim said special forces had raided the house, shot his son in the head from close range, left him bleeding on the ground for more than 40 minutes, failed to provide an ambulance, arrested him, and later announced his death.

Another relative, Nasser Al-Shaham, said special forces had raided the Zughayer neighborhood of Kufr Aqab where the family lived, blowing up the main door upon reaching the apartment. Soldiers shot Mohammed at close range, leaving him to bleed for more than half an hour, he added.

The soldiers assaulted Mohammed's parents and siblings. They tied up the family and confined them to one room. Israeli army personnel searched the house, causing significant damage, and left with Mohammed, who was still bleeding.

They are still holding Mohammed’s body.

“We have been informed of the martyrdom of Mohammed, but we have not yet been informed of the date of receiving the body,” said Nasser.

Meanwhile, the UN called for an "immediate, comprehensive and independent investigation" into the young man's murder. The UN Special Coordinator for the Middle East Peace Process, Tor Wennesland, said in a tweet: "I am deeply disturbed by the killing of the Palestinian youth, Mohammed Al-Shaham, at the hands of the Israeli security forces in his home in Kufr Aqab, in disputed circumstances.

"This requires an immediate, thorough and independent investigation."

Senior PLO official Hussein Al-Sheikh said: “The crime of executing citizen Al-Shaham deserves an immediate and urgent international investigation.”

Palestinian Prime Minister Mohammed Shtayieh condemned the killing: “What happened is a major crime.”

Mosques mourned Mohammed's death, and clashes broke out in Kufr Aqab and Qalandia refugee camp.

Al-Shaham was a painter inside Israel and belonged to the Fatah movement. The army had previously shot him during clashes that coincided with its incursions into Qalandia and Kufr last year.

The Palestinian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said the heinous crime was an extension of the executions and field assassinations committed by the occupying forces.

“As the ministry views this crime and its nature very seriously, it will follow up on it at all levels, especially the International Criminal Court, the Human Rights Council, and other legal levels of the United Nations, in the context of its continuous efforts to put an end to Israel's impunity.”

Israeli police claimed that Al-Shaham came out of his house carrying a knife and tried to stab their officers, who responded by shooting and neutralizing him.

But Ibrahim rejected this account. He also said his son had never been arrested and was not wanted by the Israeli army.

The Israeli army and police have killed 139 Palestinians this year.

The army arrested 24 Palestinians during a raid on Jenin and other parts of the West Bank at dawn on Monday.


Iran says Rushdie and supporters to blame for attack

Updated 15 August 2022

Iran says Rushdie and supporters to blame for attack

  • US Secretary of State Antony Blinken recently blamed Iran for inciting violence against Rushdie for generations
  • Iran’s former supreme leader Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini had called Muslims to kill the novelist in 1989

DUBAI: No one has the right to level accusations against Iran over Friday’s attack on Salman Rushdie, for which he is to blame after denigrating the world’s Muslims, the foreign ministry in Tehran said on Monday.

The novelist, who has lived under a death threat for decades since enraging clerical authorities in Iran through his writing, is recovering after being repeatedly stabbed at a public appearance in New York state.

In Iran’s first official reaction to Friday’s attack, ministry spokesperson Nasser Kanaani said freedom of speech did not justify Rushdie’s insults against religion. His 1988 novel “The Satanic Verses” is viewed by some Muslims as containing blasphemous passages.

“During the attack on Salman Rushdie, we do not consider anyone other than himself and his supporters worthy of ... reproach and condemnation,” Kanaani told a news briefing. “No one has the right to accuse Iran in this regard.”

Writers and politicians around the world have condemned the attack. His agent told Reuters that Rushdie had sustained severe injuries, including nerve damage in his arm and wounds to his liver, and was likely to lose an eye.

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said on Sunday that Iranian state institutions had incited violence against Rushdie for generations, and state-affiliated media had gloated about the attempt on his life.

The Indian-born writer has had a bounty on his head since “The Satanic Verses” was published in 1988. The following year, Iran’s then Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini issued a fatwa, or edict, calling on Muslims to kill the novelist and anyone involved in the book’s publication.

In 1991, the novel’s Japanese translator, Hitoshi Igarashi was stabbed to death. A former student of Igarashi’s on Monday renewed calls for his murder to be solved, the Ibaraki Shimbun newspaper reported.

A police spokesperson told Reuters that an investigation was still active and that the statute of limitations on the crime, which expired in 2006, could be lifted.

The novel’s Italian translator was wounded in 1991 and two years later its Norwegian publisher was shot and seriously wounded.

In 1998, Iran’s pro-reform government of President Mohammad Khatami distanced itself from the fatwa, saying the threat against Rushdie — who had lived in hiding for nine years — was over.

But in 2019, Twitter suspended Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei’s account over a tweet that said the fatwa against was “irrevocable.”

HARDLINE REACTIONS

Rushdie, 75, has lived relatively openly in recent years.

He was about to deliver a lecture at the Chautauqua Institution in western New York on the importance of the United States as a haven for targeted artists when police say a 24-year-old man rushed the stage and stabbed him.

Ministry spokesperson Kanaani said Rushdie had “exposed himself to popular outrage by insulting Islamic sanctities and crossing the red lines of 1.5 billion Muslims.”

Kanaani said Iran had no other information about the novelist’s suspected assailant except what had appeared in media.

The suspect, Hadi Matar of Fairview, New Jersey, pleaded not guilty to attempted murder and assault at a court appearance on Saturday, his court-appointed lawyer, Nathaniel Barone, told Reuters.

An initial law enforcement review of Matar’s social media accounts showed he was sympathetic to Shiite extremism and Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), according to NBC New York. Washington accuses the IRGC of carrying out a global extremist campaign.

IRGC-affiliated Jam-e Jam and other hard-line Iranian state media outlets celebrated the attack and some Iranians voiced support for it online.

Matar is the son of a man from Yaroun in southern Lebanon, according to Ali Tehfe, the town’s mayor. Matar’s parents emigrated to the United States, where he was born and raised, the mayor said, adding he had no information on their political views.

The Iran-backed armed group Hezbollah holds significant sway in Yaroun, where posters of Khomeini and IRGC commander Qassem Soleimani, killed by a US drone strike in 2020, adorned walls at the weekend.

A Hezbollah official told Reuters on Saturday that the group had no additional information on Friday’s attack.


Drone attack targets US base in Syria, no casualties

Updated 15 August 2022

Drone attack targets US base in Syria, no casualties

  • Attack took place in the vicinity of Al-Tanf base near where the borders of Syria, Jordan and Iraq meet
BEIRUT: An attack with drones hit a compound run by American troops and US-backed Syrian opposition fighters in eastern Syria on Monday, the US military said, adding that there were no casualties or damage.
The military said the attack took place in the vicinity of Al-Tanf base near where the borders of Syria, Jordan and Iraq meet. There was no claim of responsibility for the attack.
US and coalition troops are based at Al-Tanf to train Syrian forces on patrols to counter militants from the Daesh group. The base is also located on a road serving as a vital link for Iranian-backed forces, stretching from Tehran all the way to Lebanon.
The military statement said coalition troops in coordination with opposition fighters — known as Maghaweir Al-Thowra — “responded to an attack by multiple unmanned aerial systems in the vicinity of Al-Tanf Garrison” on Monday morning.
It said the troops successfully engaged one of the drones preventing its impact while a second one detonated within the opposition forces’ compound, “resulting in zero casualties or reported damage.” The other attempted drone strikes were not successful, it added.
Maj. Gen. John Brennan, the commander of Combined Joint Task Force, condemned the drone strike. “Such attacks put the lives of innocent Syrian civilians at risk and undermine the significant efforts by our Partner Forces to maintain the lasting defeat of IS,” he said, using an acronym for the Daesh group.
The attack occurred hours after Israeli airstrikes on western and central Syria killed three soldiers, wounded three others and caused material damage.
A Syrian opposition war monitor, the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, said the Israeli strikes hit Syrian army positions where Iran-backed fighters are based.
Drone attacks on Al-Tanf have been rare.
In October last year, US officials said they believe Iran was behind a drone attack that month in Al-Tanf saying at the time that they believe that the attacks involved as many as five drones laden with explosive charges. It said the drones hit both the US side of Al-Tanf garrison and the side where Syrian opposition forces stay.
The October attacks came days after an Israeli airstrike on central Syria.

Iran denies being involved in attack on Salman Rushdie

Updated 15 August 2022

Iran denies being involved in attack on Salman Rushdie

TEHRAN, Iran: An Iranian government official denied on Monday that Tehran was involved in the assault on author Salman Rushdie, in remarks that were the country’s first public comments on the attack.
The comments by Nasser Kanaani, the spokesman of Iran’s Foreign Ministry, come over two days after the attack on Rushdie in New York.
However, Iran has denied carrying out other operations abroad targeting dissidents in the years since the country’s 1979 Islamic Revolution, despite prosecutors and Western governments attributing such attacks back to Tehran.
“We, in the incident of the attack on Salman Rushdie in the US, do not consider that anyone deserves blame and accusations except him and his supporters,” Kanaani said. “Nobody has right to accuse Iran in this regard.”
Rushdie, 75, was stabbed Friday while attending an event in western New York. He suffered a damaged liver and severed nerves in an arm and an eye, his agent said. He was likely to lose the injured eye.
His assailant, 24-year-old Hadi Matar, has pleaded not guilty to charges stemming from the attack through his lawyer.
The award-winning author for more than 30 years has faced death threats for “The Satanic Verses.” Iran’s late Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini had issued a fatwa, or Islamic edict, demanding his death. An Iranian foundation had put up a bounty of over $3 million for the author.
Kanaani added that Iran did not “have any other information more than what the American media has reported.”

Freedom of speech does not justify Rushdie's insults upon religion in his writing, Kanaani said.
The West “condemning the actions of the attacker and in return glorifying the actions of the insulter to Islamic beliefs is a contradictory attitude,” Kanaani said.