Filipinos celebrate end of decades-old kafala system in Saudi Arabia

An alliance of overseas Filipino workers (OFW) celebrated the abolition of Saudi Arabia’s kafala sponsorship system on Sunday. (Reuters/File)
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Updated 14 March 2021

Filipinos celebrate end of decades-old kafala system in Saudi Arabia

  • Move will encourage transparency and freedom, migrant workers’ group says

MANILA: An alliance of overseas Filipino workers (OFW) celebrated the abolition of Saudi Arabia’s kafala sponsorship system on Sunday, rejoicing over the historic labor reforms that have given more “freedom” to millions of migrant workers in the Kingdom.

“Saudi Arabia has announced that it will end its notorious sponsorship or kafala system on March 14. Migrante-Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, together with all OFWs in the country, is glad and jubilant and is celebrating over this historic action,” Migrante International (MI) said in a statement late on Saturday.

The new measures, effective March 14, will ensure that migrant workers in the private sector have improved job mobility and can switch jobs or leave the Kingdom without their employers’ consent.

The move will also allow foreign workers to apply directly for government services, with all employment contracts documented online.

“The announcement will do away with the need for a sponsor or kafeel’s approval to transfer sponsorship, for a migrant worker to undergo sponsorship to receive exit and re-entry visas, and for migrants to become runaways or ‘huroob’ from their kafeels,” according to MI.

It added that the Kingdom was undertaking the initiative “to strengthen its private sector and make it more attractive to foreign talent,” as it seeks to diversify its internal economy, which has for long been dependent on oil.

“Migrante-KSA lauds Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman who, in his Vision 2030, is undertaking economic reforms in the country and has boldly decided to let go of the kafala system,” the statement said.

Recruitment and migration expert Emmanuel Geslani told Arab News that ending the kafala system was a “liberation” for Filipino workers, as well as for workers of other nationalities, in the Kingdom.

As many as 10 million migrant workers are expected to benefit from the Kingdom’s Labor Reform Initiative, which is intended to foster “a competitive and fair working environment.”

“Abolition of this major restriction, which has been imposed on all foreign workers, will now free our OFWs from the abusive manners of some employers,” he said.

“It will create more liberal conditions, especially for our household service workers, who were susceptible to abuse from their employers,” Geslani added.

Geslani said there had been instances in which some employers used the system to hold workers “hostage” by withholding their exit visas unless payment was made by the Philippine embassy or the employee’s accredited recruiter.

“This was despite the termination of their contracts or contract disputes, which led some to run away,” he said, adding that the reforms were a win-win for all.

“The Saudi government also lifted the system to attract more highly skilled workers who were hesitant to work in the Kingdom due to the kafala system,” Geslani said.

According to MI, the kafala system had been in place for seven decades in the Kingdom.

“Many migrant workers, local and international NGOs, and even the UN have criticized it and have called for its reform,” MI said.

The Philippines has been advocating against the kafala system in the UN and international fora for years.

Earlier, it had officially partnered with Bahrain, one of the first countries to abolish the system in its labor reform movement through the Flexi Visa System, which allows undocumented workers to acquire regular immigration status without an employer sponsor.

The Philippines also pioneered the negotiation and international adoption of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration to protect Filipino migrant workers against exploitation and abuse and guarantee decent work, consistent with President Rodrigo Duterte’s policies for “no OFW to be a slave to anyone.”

Saudi Arabia has one of the highest numbers of Filipino migrant workers in the Middle East, with nearly 1 million OFWs deployed in the Kingdom.

There was a drop in number last year with the repatriation of many OFWs affected by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.

Democracy languishes 30 years after Cambodia peace deal

Updated 6 sec ago

Democracy languishes 30 years after Cambodia peace deal

  • Hun Sen has amassed vast fortunes for his family, while almost 30 percent of Cambodians live barely above the poverty line, says Australian FM Gareth Evans, one of the architects of the peace deal

PHNOM PENH: Three decades after a landmark agreement ended years of bloody violence in Cambodia, its strongman ruler has crushed all opposition and is eyeing dynastic succession, shattering hopes for a democratic future.
The Paris Peace Agreements, signed on October 23, 1991, brought an end to nearly two decades of savage slaughter that began with the Khmer Rouge’s ascent to power in 1975.
The genocidal regime wiped out up to two million Cambodians through murder, starvation and overwork, before a Vietnamese invasion toppled the communist Khmer Rouge but triggered a civil war.
The Paris accords paved the way for Cambodia’s first democratic election in 1993 and effectively brought the Cold War in Asia to an end.
Aid from the West flowed and Cambodia became the poster child for post-conflict transition to democracy.
But the gains were short-lived and Premier Hun Sen, now in his fourth decade in power, has led a sustained crackdown on dissent.
“We did a great job on bringing peace, but blew it on democracy and human rights,” said former Australian foreign minister Gareth Evans, one of the architects of the peace deal.

Evans said it was a mistake to agree to Hun Sen’s demands for a power-sharing arrangement after the 1993 election.
“Hun Sen has amassed vast fortunes for his family... while almost 30 percent of Cambodians live barely above the poverty line,” he said.
Rights groups say the veteran strongman maintains his iron grip on the country through a mix of violence, politically motivated prosecutions and corruption.
Exiled opposition figurehead Sam Rainsy said the international community lacked the will in 1993 to stand up to Hun Sen, who had been installed as ruler by the Vietnamese in 1985.
“The West had a tendency to wait and see and look for imagined gradual improvements in governance. That clearly did not work,” he told AFP.
“Cambodian politicians also have to accept some blame. Too many found it easier to accept a quiet but lucrative life in government than to say what they really thought.”
Human Rights Watch said that under Hun Sen, “even the patina of democracy and basic rights” has collapsed in recent years.
In 2017, the Supreme Court dissolved the main opposition, the Cambodia National Rescue Party.
And since the 2018 election — in which Hun Sen’s party won every seat in parliament — the authorities have arrested scores of former opposition members and rights campaigners.
Around 150 opposition figures and activists are facing a mass trial for treason and incitement charges, while the main opposition leader Kem Sokha is facing a separate treason trial.
Covid-19 has seen more curbs, with over 700 people arrested according to the UN rights body, which has warned that most may not have had a fair trial.
The spokesman for the ruling Cambodian People’s Party insisted it was the “will of the people” to have one party in parliament.
“We have peace, we have political stability, it reflects that we correctly implement the principles of democracy, and there is no abuse of human rights either,” Sok Eysan told AFP.

There has been some international censure — the European Union withdrew preferential trade rates last year over rights abuses — but the pressure shows little sign of translating into change.
“The reality is Cambodia has become a wholly-owned subsidiary of China, like Laos next door, and that means Hun Sen has been able to comfortably thumb his nose at any potential economic or political pressure from elsewhere,” Evans said.
Speculation has simmered that the 69-year-old Hun Sen is grooming his eldest son Hun Manet — a four-star general educated in Britain and the United States — to take over the leadership one day.
But in March, the veteran ruler said he would no longer set a date for his retirement, and activists have little hope that a change in leadership will bring a new direction.
“In Cambodia, we don’t have real democracy,” Batt Raksmey told AFP.
Her campaigner husband was jailed in May for allegedly inciting unrest after he raised environmental concerns about a lake on the edge of Phnom Penh.
“People have no freedom to speak their opinion,” she said. “When they speak out and criticize the government, they are arrested.”

China says moon rocks offer new clues to volcanic activity

Updated 21 min 54 sec ago

China says moon rocks offer new clues to volcanic activity

  • China in December brought back the first rocks from the moon since missions by the US and former Soviet Union in the 1970s

BEIJING: Moon rocks brought back to Earth by a Chinese robotic spacecraft last year have provided new insights into ancient lunar volcanic activity, a researcher said Tuesday.
Li Xianhua said an analysis of the samples revealed new information about the moon’s chemical composition and the way heat affected its development.
Li said the samples indicate volcanic activity was still occurring on the moon as recently as 2 billion years ago, compared to previous estimates that such activity halted between 2.8 billion and 3 billion years ago.
“Volcanic activities are a very important thing on the moon. They show the vitality inside the moon, and represent the recycling of energy and matter inside the moon,” Li told reporters.
China in December brought back the first rocks from the moon since missions by the US and former Soviet Union in the 1970s.
On Saturday, China launched a new three-person crew to its space station, a new milestone in a space program that has advanced rapidly in recent years.
China became only the third country after the former Soviet Union and the United States to put a person in space on its own in 2003 and now ranks among the leading space powers.
Alongside its crewed program, it has expanded its work on robotic exploration, retrieving the lunar samples and landing a rover on the little-explored far side of the moon. It has also placed the Tianwen-1 space probe on Mars, whose accompanying Zhurong rover has been exploring for evidence of life on the red planet.
China also plans to collect soil from an asteroid and bring back additional lunar samples. The country also hopes to land people on the moon and possibly build a scientific base there. A highly secretive space plane is also reportedly under development.
The military-run Chinese space program has also drawn controversy. China’s Foreign Ministry on Monday brushed-off a report that China had tested a hypersonic missile two months ago. A ministry spokesperson said it had merely tested whether a new spacecraft could be reused.

Melbourne readies to exit world’s longest COVID-19 lockdown

Updated 25 min 14 sec ago

Melbourne readies to exit world’s longest COVID-19 lockdown

  • Prime Minister Scott Morrison on Thursday confirmed the state had reached that target, with more restrictions set to ease as inoculations hit 80% and 90%

SYDNEY: Millions in Melbourne are readying to come out of the world's longest COVID-19 lockdown later on Thursday even as cases hover near record levels, with pubs, restaurants and cafes rushing to restock supplies before opening their doors.
Since early August, residents in Australia's second-largest city have been in lockdown — their sixth during the pandemic — to quell an outbreak fuelled by the highly infectious Delta strain.
Officials had promised to lift lockdowns once double-dose vaccinations for people aged above 16 exceeded 70% in Victoria state, of which Melbourne is the capital.
Prime Minister Scott Morrison on Thursday confirmed the state had reached that target, with more restrictions set to ease as inoculations hit 80% and 90%.
"The longest road has been journeyed in Victoria and that long road really starts to open up tonight," Morrison told Seven News on Thursday.
From 11:59 p.m. (1359 GMT) Thursday, pubs and cafes can have 20 fully vaccinated patrons indoors and 50 outdoors, while hairdressers can allow entry for five customers. Masks will still be mandatory both indoors and outdoors.
By then, the city of five million would have spent a cumulative 262 days, or nearly nine months, under stay-home orders since March 2020 — the world's longest, exceeding a 234-day lockdown in Buenos Aires, according to Australian media.
Pubs have begun to take more beer ahead of the reopening with Carlton & United Breweries, owned by Japan's Asahi Group Holdings, saying it had moved an extra 50,000 kegs to venues across the city on Thursday.
As businesses prepare to welcome customers, daily infections rose to 2,232 in Victoria on Thursday, the second highest daily count in any Australian jurisdiction during the pandemic.

After largely stamping out infections in 2020, Australia has ditched its COVID-zero approach and is aiming to live with virus amid higher vaccinations after being rocked by a third wave of infections in the country's southeast since mid-June.
Despite the Delta wave, Australia has recorded only about 152,000 cases and 1,590 deaths, far lower than many comparable countries.
Cases in New South Wales, home to Sydney, rose for the third straight day on Thursday to 372 from 283 a day earlier.
Virus-free Queensland state is on alert after reporting its first new local case in two weeks — an unvaccinated Uber driver who spent 10 days in the community while potentially infectious.
Sydney and Canberra, the national capital, exited lockdowns last week after speeding through their vaccination targets. Other states are COVID-free or have very few cases.
With restrictions beginning to ease, Qantas Airways said it would ramp up daily flights between Sydney and Melbourne, one of the world's busiest domestic routes before the pandemic, to about 15 from the first week of November from just one now.

US FDA clears Moderna, J&J COVID-19 boosters, backs use of different vaccine for boost

Updated 14 min 42 sec ago

US FDA clears Moderna, J&J COVID-19 boosters, backs use of different vaccine for boost

The US Food and Drug Administration on Wednesday authorized booster doses of the COVID-19 vaccines from Moderna Inc. and Johnson & Johnson, and said Americans can choose a different shot from their original inoculation as a booster.
That means all three vaccines authorized in the United States can also be given as boosters to some groups.
“The availability of these authorized boosters is important for continued protection against COVID-19 disease,” acting FDA Commissioner Janet Woodcock said in a statement. She noted that data suggests vaccine effectiveness may wane over time in some fully vaccinated people.
The decision paves the way for millions in the United States to get the additional protection as the highly contagious Delta variant of the virus causes breakthrough infections among some who are fully vaccinated.
The agency previously authorized boosters of the Pfizer Inc. COVID-19 vaccine developed with German partner BioNTech SE at least six months after the first round of shots to increase protection for people aged 65 and older, those at risk of severe disease and those who are exposed to the virus through their work.
Last week, an advisory panel to the FDA voted to recommend a third round of shots of the Moderna vaccine for the same groups. Moderna’s booster is half the strength of the shots administered for the company’s initial series of inoculations.
The panel also recommended a second shot of the J&J vaccine for all recipients of the one-dose inoculation at least two months after receiving their first.
FDA officials suggested last week they were considering lowering the recommended age for booster shots of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine to as young as 40, based on data from Israel, where Pfizer booster shots have already been administered broadly.
They did not lower the age range for the shots on Wednesday, but said they were assessing the benefits and risks of broader use of boosters and plan to update the public in the coming weeks.
“There is evidence that suggests potentially that lowering the age of those eligible for boosters may make sense in the future,” FDA official Peter Marks told a news conference. “It’s something we’re looking at closely.”
The FDA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were under pressure to authorize the additional shots after the White House announced plans in August for a widespread booster campaign.
The advisory panel meeting included a presentation of data on mixing vaccines from a US National Institutes of Health study in which 458 participants received some combination of Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and J&J shots.
The data showed that people who initially got J&J’s COVID-19 vaccine had a stronger immune response when boosted with either the Pfizer or Moderna shot, and that “mixing and matching” booster shots of different types was safe in adults.
Still, FDA officials said the data was not yet clear on whether any shot combination should be preferred.
“Because we don’t have those data right now, I think we just have to be noncommittal about what is the best,” Marks said.
Many countries including the UK have backed mix-and-match strategies for the widely used AstraZeneca Plc vaccine, which is not authorized in the United States but is based on similar viral vector technology as J&J’s vaccine.
Reuters reported in June that infectious disease experts were weighing the need for booster shots of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine after the J&J shot.
A CDC advisory committee on Thursday will make its recommendations about which groups of people should get the Moderna and J&J boosters, which the agency’s director will use to inform her final decision.
About 11.2 million people have so far received a booster dose, according to data from the CDC.

South Korea seeks space race entry with first homegrown rocket

Updated 30 min 31 sec ago

South Korea seeks space race entry with first homegrown rocket

  • South Korea's space program has a chequered record — its first two launches in 2009 and 2010, which in part used Russian technology, both ended in failure

SEOUL: South Korea is aiming to join the ranks of advanced spacefaring nations on Thursday when it attempts to put a one-ton payload into orbit using its first fully homegrown rocket.
The country has risen to become the world’s 12th-largest economy and a technologically advanced nation, home to the planet’s biggest smartphone and memory chip maker, Samsung Electronics.
But it has lagged in the headline-making world of spaceflight, where the Soviet Union led the way with the first satellite launch in 1957, closely followed by the United States.
In Asia, China, Japan and India all have advanced space programs, and the South’s nuclear-armed neighbor North Korea was the most recent entrant to the club of countries with their own satellite launch capability.
Ballistic missiles and space rockets use similar technology and Pyongyang put a 300-kilogramme (660-pound) satellite into orbit in 2012 in what Western countries condemned as a disguised missile test.
Even now, only six nations — not including North Korea — have successfully launched a one-ton payload on their own rockets.
The South will become the seventh if the Korean Satellite Launch Vehicle II, informally called Nuri, succeeds in putting its 1.5-ton dummy cargo into orbit from the launch site in Goheung, with an altitude of 600 to 800 kilometers being targeted.
The three-stage rocket has been a decade in development at a cost of 2 trillion won ($1.6 billion). It weighs 200 tons and is 47.2 meters (155 feet) long, fitted with a total of six liquid-fueled engines.

But the South Korean space program has a chequered record — its first two launches in 2009 and 2010, which in part used Russian technology, both ended in failure, the second one exploding two minutes into the flight and Seoul and Moscow blaming each other.
Eventually a 2013 launch succeeded, but still relied on a Russian-developed engine for its first stage.
The satellite launch business is increasingly the preserve of private companies, notably Elon Musk’s SpaceX, whose clients include the US space agency NASA and the South Korean military.
But one expert said a successful Nuri launch offered South Korea “infinite” potential.
“Rockets are the only means available to mankind to go out into space,” Lee Sang-ryul, the director of the Korea Aerospace Research Institute, told local paper Chosun Biz.
“Having such technology means we have fulfilled basic requirements to join this space exploration competition.”
Thursday’s launch is one step on an increasingly ambitious space program for South Korea, which President Moon Jae-in said would seek to launch a lunar orbiter next year, after he inspected a Nuri engine test in March.
“With achievements in South Korean rocket systems, the government will pursue an active space exploration project,” he said.
“We will realize the dream of landing our probe on the Moon by 2030.”