Will fall in food waste in the Middle East outlast the coronavirus pandemic?

The problem of food waste is a global one. (AFP)
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Updated 10 December 2020

Will fall in food waste in the Middle East outlast the coronavirus pandemic?

  • Reduction in food waste bodes well for a region known for overconsumption and overreliance on imports
  • UN agencies estimate around a third of the world’s food is being wasted, or roughly 1.43 billion tons every year

DUBAI, LONDON: COVID-19 has been a disaster for the hospitality sector, shutting restaurants, bars and cafes for months on end, devouring their profits and causing many to close down for good.

One of the few silver linings of the pandemic cloud, however, is the substantial reduction in food waste and the rise of a more conscientious approach to consumption.

Across the Middle East and North Africa region, the signs are promising, at least for now. A survey of 284 people in Tunisia conducted by the US-based National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) this year found 85 percent of respondents discarded no household food waste, while a majority said they had devised a strategy for saving, storing and eating leftovers.

“Changes in food waste prevention might be driven more by the socio-economic context of the COVID-19 lockdown, such as food availability, restricted movements or loss of income than by a pro-environmental concern,” the NCBI said in its study.

It is no secret that GCC member states are among the highest waste-generating countries per capita in the world. However, in the UAE, the volume of food waste fell in 2020 once the biggest food wasters like hotels closed up their kitchens. Households also changed their shopping habits, buying only what they needed and saving what they could not finish.

“During the lockdown, many of us have been experiencing self-reliance. We have reassessed the value of our comforts that we usually took for granted,” said Ivano Iannelli, chief executive of green economy think tank Dubai Carbon.

Some employers have chosen to cut salaries to help weather the economic storm, which has forced families to reduce their daily consumption by cooking in more and storing their leftovers.

Food retailers in the GCC region have done rather well out of the pandemic, with many more customers ordering groceries to their door, according to a 2020 report by US sales intelligence firm Altios International Inc.

Consumers have also started buying more essential items in bulk to avoid regular trips to the store, the data suggests. “In the UAE, the snacks category has been steadily growing and is expected to see marked growth as consumers stay indoors during the COVID-19 outbreak,” the report said.

Two UAE residents interviewed by Arab News exemplify the popular embrace of the digital marketplace. May Adel, an e-commerce account executive, said she has completely shifted to online grocery shopping since the pandemic began as she finds it safer and more convenient.

Zaheda Muntazir, social media marketer, said: “I have started to shop online more, especially grocery delivery, as it is easier especially during this critical time.”

Of course, the real world of consumption is more complicated. Preeti Bisht, an organic waste management and compostable food packaging specialist, says many people have reverted to their older shopping habits now that the more stringent lockdown measures have been lifted. Nevertheless, owing to a general climate of financial insecurity, customers appear far more aware of their monthly expenses.

In Saudi Arabia, approximately 33 percent of food is wasted. (AFP)

“Most people buy weekly groceries, which are well listed before visiting the supermarket to avoid unwanted stuff,” she told Arab News.

Additionally, social-distancing rules have made family gatherings far less common this year, which has helped reduce the associated waste of laying on big spreads at holiday time. “It is believed that, during Ramadan, food waste is double the normal level,” said Bisht.

“As per conservative estimates, around 15-25 percent of all food items purchased or prepared during Ramadan find its way into the garbage bin before being used or consumed.”

In Saudi Arabia, approximately 33 percent of food is wasted, costing the country $10.6 billion per year, according to a study by the Saudi Grains Organization.

“To my knowledge, the Kingdom has the maximum food waste in the Middle East region. They generate an average of 427kg of food waste per capita annually,” Bisht said.

To be certain, the problem of food waste is a global one. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates around a third of the world’s food is being wasted — equal to approximately 1.43 billion tons every year.

Similar are the conclusions of a 2020 report by Deloitte, the professional services network, which not only shows that 33 percent of food produced globally is wasted but expects this figure to rise over the course of the pandemic.

33 percent of food produced globally is wasted. (AFP)

“(This is) due to catering industry companies that need to get rid of expired food products, food production companies that are forced to switch their portfolio from out-of-home products to food retail products and (unnecessary) food hoarding by consumers,” the report said.

The Dubai Municipality said this year that global food waste costs around $1 trillion each year, and approximately $410 billion annually to dispose of. As for people in the UAE, it said they purchase an “alarming amount of food” that is surplus to requirements.

Iannelli of Dubai Carbon says food-waste reduction is beneficial from both “upstream and downstream” ends. Less waste ultimately means lower production, which implies consumption of fewer resources like water, energy and transportation, resulting in lower emissions.

The moral and ethical dimensions of the issue cannot be glossed over either given that almost one billion people worldwide are experiencing hunger. “If only one quarter of the food wasted was saved, it would feed about 870 million hungry people across the world,” Dubai Municipality said.

In Yemen, more than 20 million people are food insecure and 13 million require World Food Programme (WFP) assistance to meet their daily needs, according to a 2020 WFP report. “Another three million people are at risk of worsening hunger as coronavirus sweeps unchecked across Yemen,” it said.

Food deliveries may be part of the more frugal approach to consumption, but it is not entirely free of waste. Mishandled or delayed meals can be rejected and end up in the trash. Prank calls for fake orders can also result in waste, the FAO says.

Companies are also at fault for encouraging food waste through special offers, says Ryan Ingram, founder of UAE-based TerraLoop Food Waste Consulting.

“If online outlets are offering multiple bargains — buy one get one free and larger portion sizes etc. — then there may tend to be over-purchase and therefore more waste,” he told Arab News.

Because of the coronavirus, consumers have also started buying more essential items in bulk to avoid regular trips to the store. (AFP)

Leftovers tend to find their way into the trash as takeaway food often has a shorter shelf life than home-cooked meals, Ingram said.

Clearly, consumer habits in the Middle East will take time to adjust. Meanwhile, governments, international organizations and influential public figures can do their bit.

The issue of reducing food waste is highlighted in the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with Goals 2 and 12 calling for achieving zero hunger, and halving food waste and reducing food loss by 2030, respectively.

“Food loss and waste is an ethical outrage. In a world with enough food to feed all people, everywhere, 690 million people continue to go hungry and 3 billion cannot afford a healthy diet,” Antonio Guterres, the UN secretary-general, said in a message on Sept. 19, the first ever International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste Reduction.

In the UAE, the National Committee for Reducing Food Waste and Loss has set up initiatives to help lower the rate of food waste by 15 percent by the end of 2021, according to a report by the business news agency Zawya.

“We have a habit of excess that we need to restrain,” Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Sheikh Mohamed bin Zayed told an online Ramadan majlis in May. “If this excess or overspending is for a good cause, like charity, it is good and we support it, but overspending for no reason is bad.”

With luck, mass vaccination campaigns should draw the curtain on the coronavirus pandemic by the middle of 2021, allowing the hospitality sector to flourish once again. But experts believe the pandemic-driven shift to online retail from brick-and-mortar stores is likely to continue. Only time will tell whether the trend will also lead to a lasting culture of conscientious food consumption.

Twitter: @farahheiba94

Israeli court hears custody fight over cable car survivor, 6

Updated 23 September 2021

Israeli court hears custody fight over cable car survivor, 6

  • Eitan Biran’s relatives on both sides attended the session in Tel Aviv
  • Eitan’s immediate family was among 14 people killed when the cable car carrying them crashed into a mountainside in May

JERUSALEM: The bitter custody battle over a 6-year-old boy who survived a cable car crash in Italy inched forward in Israel on Monday with a hearing in family court.
Eitan Biran’s relatives on both sides attended the session in Tel Aviv, in a legal fight that spans both countries where his remaining relatives reside. Eitan’s immediate family was among 14 people killed when the cable car carrying them crashed into a mountainside in May. The child’s survival sparked an immediate international dispute between his maternal and paternal families.
Members of both families met in family court in Tel Aviv on Monday, a next step in the dispute. Those present included Eitan’s aunt Aya Biran, who lives in Italy and has filed a formal request with the Italian court system seeking Eitan’s return to Italy. Also attending Monday’s hearing was the child’s grandfather, Shmulik Peleg, who spirited the boy away to Israel.
Eitan’s relatives in Italy say he was taken without their knowledge and are seeking his return. The child’s relatives in Israel have denied to local media that they abducted Eitan and insist they are acting in his interest.
Peleg has acknowledged driving the child from Italy into Switzerland before flying him back to Israel, telling Channel 12 that “we departed in a totally legal way.”
Peleg was questioned by Israeli police on kidnapping suspicions and placed under house arrest pending an ongoing investigation.
Italian authorities also have opened an investigation. Peleg told Israel’s Channel 12 that he had given up on contesting custody in the Italian court system and said he expected the boy to understand once he got older.
“I believe that one day Eitan will grow up and say grandfather, you did everything for me, you saved me,” he said, breaking into tears. “And my daughter, who one day will meet me in heaven, will be proud of me that I saved her son.”

Hamas rejects PA’s call for Palestinian local elections

Updated 22 September 2021

Hamas rejects PA’s call for Palestinian local elections

  • Hamas is a long-standing rival of the Palestinian Authority
  • Hamas, which was furious by Abbas's general election postponement, said Wednesday that it "would not be part of... fragmented municipal elections"

GAZA CITY, Palestinian Territories: Hamas, the Islamist group that runs Gaza, said Wednesday it would not participate in municipal Palestinians elections set by the Palestinian Authority for December unless a general election is also called.
Hamas is a long-standing rival of the PA, based in the occupied West Bank, and had supported the decision to hold Palestinian legislative and presidential elections in May and July.
But president Mahmud Abbas in April indefinitely postponed those votes, which would have been the first Palestinian elections in 15 years.
Abbas cited Israel’s refusal to guarantee voting in Israeli-annexed east Jerusalem, which Palestinians claim as their future capital.
But Palestinian experts said Abbas balked out of fear that Hamas would sweep the polls, in a repeat of 2006 results that the president’s Fatah movement did not accept.
Hamas, which was furious by Abbas’s general election postponement, said Wednesday that it “would not be part of... fragmented municipal elections.”
“The right solution is to hold comprehensive elections” for the Palestinian presidency, Palestinian legislative council, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), municipal bodies and trade and student unions, Hamas spokesman Hazem Qassem told reporters.
Those votes could happen “simultaneously or according to a nationally agreed timetable,” he said.
“If that is plan, we are ready to participate.”
The municipal elections called by the PA would take place in 387 localities throughout the West Bank and Gaza on December 11, and then in 90 other places at a later date that has yet to be set.
Of the 477 voting sites, just 11 were in Gaza.
Hamas’s rejection of the process would make voting impossible in Gaza, an Israeli-blockaded territory controlled by the Islamists since 2007.
Hamas is considered a terrorist organization by the United States and European Union but is seeking to bolster its legitimacy through election wins and by joining the PLO, a group of Palestinians factions recognized by Israel and the international community.

Morocco: 3 parties agree to form new coalition government

Updated 22 September 2021

Morocco: 3 parties agree to form new coalition government

  • King Mohammed VI appointed billionaire Aziz Akhanouch as prime minister earlier this month
  • A former agriculture minister, Akhanouch is one of Morocco’s richest men

RABAT: Morocco’s prime minister-designate announced Wednesday that a three-party coalition will form the country’s next government.
King Mohammed VI appointed billionaire Aziz Akhanouch as prime minister earlier this month after his party placed first in a legislative election, netting 102 out of the 395 seats in the lower house of parliament.
The coalition includes Akhanouch’s liberal National Rally of Independents Party, or RNI, the Authenticity and Modernity party (PAM) and the conservative Istiqlal (IP).
Formed in 2008 by Fouad Ali El Hima, a personal friend of the king and one of his close advisers, PAM has never before been part of a Moroccan government.
The Istiqlal Party is Morocco’s oldest party and has participated in several governments since the kingdom gained independence from France in 1956.
The three parties together won 270 seats in the House of Representatives, giving the coalition government a comfortable majority to pass laws.
“We will work together to form an effective and coherent majority before presenting the government lineup to King Mohammed VI,” Akhanouch said during a press conference. “We share many historical backgrounds and we intersect in a number of priorities.”
A former agriculture minister, Akhanouch is one of Morocco’s richest men.
He replaces Prime Minister Saad Eddine El Othmani, whose Islamist Justice and Development Party (PJD) suffered a stinging a defeat in the Sept. 8 election. The party, which has been in power since 2011, secured only 13 parliament seats, down from 125 in the 2016 election.
The PJD’s leadership resigned en masse after this month’s elections and said the party would join the opposition ranks.
In a statement, the moderate Islamist party alleged “many violations and imbalances witnessed” during the elections,” adding that “the results do not reflect the reality of the political map and the free will of the voters.”


Turkey’s top Islamic cleric moves center stage, irking secularists

Updated 22 September 2021

Turkey’s top Islamic cleric moves center stage, irking secularists

  • Political foes says Ali Erbas’s growing profile is at odds with the Turkish Republic’s secular constitution
ISTANBUL: When President Tayyip Erdogan opened a new court complex this month, Turkey’s senior cleric sealed the ceremony with a Muslim prayer, triggering protests from critics who said his actions contravened the secular constitution.
“Make this wonderful work beneficial and blessed for our nation, my God,” Ali Erbas said in his address, adding that many judges had “worked to bring the justice which (God) ordered.”
Erbas’s appearance at the Sept. 1 ceremony in Ankara, and the wave of opposition criticism over his comments, reflect his rising profile at the head of a state-run religious organization and the growing influence it has attained under Erdogan.
The president, whose ruling AK Party is rooted in political Islam, has overturned decades-old restrictions imposed on religion by modern Turkey’s founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, placing Islam center-stage in political life.
Last year Erbas delivered the first sermon in Istanbul’s Hagia Sophia after the Byzantine church-turned-museum was reconverted into a mosque. He did so while clutching a sword, saying this was traditional for preachers in mosques taken by conquest. The church was captured by Ottoman forces in 1453.
His state-run Diyanet organization, or Religious Affairs Directorate, has its own television channel which is recruiting 30 new staff. Its budget, which already matches that of an average ministry, will rise by a quarter next year to 16.1 billion lira ($1.86 billion), government data shows.
Erdogan further endorsed Erbas last week by extending his term at the Diyanet. He was with Erdogan again on Monday in New York, reciting a prayer at the opening of a skyscraper that will house Turkish diplomats based there.
Erdogan’s political foes says Erbas’s growing profile is at odds with the Turkish Republic’s secular constitution, and shows the president is using religion to boost his waning ratings ahead of an election scheduled for 2023.
“It is completely unacceptable for the Religious Affairs Directorate to be used politically by the AKP,” said Bahadir Erdem, deputy chairman of the opposition Iyi Party.
“The reason for Ali Erbas repeatedly making statements that polarize the nation is very clearly the government using religious sensitivities of those whose votes it thinks it can win,” he said.
Apart from the Diyanet’s growing prominence, secularists also fret over a sharp increase in religious ‘Imam Hatip’ schools, a 10 percent rise in mosque numbers in the last decade, the lifting of a ban on Muslim headscarves in state institutions and the taming of Turkey’s powerful military, once a bastion of secularism, all during Erdogan’s rule.
Responding to the criticism over the Diyanet, the presidency shared a picture of Ataturk standing in prayer beside a Muslim cleric at a ceremony outside Turkey’s new parliament 100 years ago, suggesting that even the founder of the secular republic gave space to religion alongside politics.
The secularist main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP) accuse Erdogan of deliberately using Erbas to distract public attention from Turkey’s mounting economic woes.
“He has put the Religious Affairs Directorate chairman on the field like a pawn,” CHP spokesman Faik Oztrak said.
Turkey’s constitution says the Diyanet must act in line with the principles of secularism, without expressing political views.
Erbas, a former theology professor who took office in 2017, has not addressed the criticism directly but says his role is limited to religious guidance.
“In line with the duty set out in the constitution to ‘enlighten society regarding religion’, our directorate is working to convey to our people in the most correct way the principles of Islam,” he said in a speech last week.
That message does not reassure secularist critics.
Erbas’s frequent presence at Erdogan’s side reveals a “very significant elevation of the role of Sunni Islam in government in Turkey,” said Soner Cagaptay, a director at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
“The secularist firewall of the 20th century, established by Ataturk and guarded by his successors, that has separated religion and government, and religion and education, has completely collapsed,” he said.
Erbas has courted controversy in the past. Last year his suggestion that homosexuality causes illness triggered a clash between Erdogan’s AKP and Turkey’s lawyers’ associations over freedom of expression.
But he has won support from Erdogan’s nationalist ally Devlet Bahceli.
“Turkey is a Muslim country,” he said. “The allergy against the Islamic religion of those wicked people who have broken off ties with our national and spiritual values is an incurable clinical case.”

Syrian rebel stronghold Idlib struggles with coronavirus surge

Updated 22 September 2021

Syrian rebel stronghold Idlib struggles with coronavirus surge

  • The total number of cases seen in Idlib province has more than doubled since the beginning of August
  • Extreme poverty and the ravages of Syria’s civil war have made the situation in Idlib uniquely terrible

BEIRUT: Coronavirus cases are surging to the worst levels of the pandemic in a rebel stronghold in Syria — a particularly devastating development in a region where scores of hospitals have been bombed and that doctors and nurses have fled in droves during a decade of war.
The total number of cases seen in Idlib province — an overcrowded enclave with a population of 4 million, many of them internally displaced — has more than doubled since the beginning of August to more than 61,000. In recent weeks, daily new infections have repeatedly shot past 1,500, and authorities reported 34 deaths on Sunday alone — figures that are still believed to be undercounts because many infected people don’t report to authorities.
The situation has become so dire in the northwestern province that rescue workers known as the White Helmets who became famous for digging through the rubble of bombings to find victims now mostly ferry coronavirus patients to the hospital or the dead to burials.
“What is happening is a medical catastrophe,” the Idlib Doctors Syndicate said this week as it issued a plea for support from international aid groups.
Idlib faces all the challenges that places the world over have during the pandemic: Its intensive care units are largely full, there are severe shortages of oxygen and tests, and the vaccination rollout has been slow.
But extreme poverty and the ravages of Syria’s civil war have made the situation in Idlib uniquely terrible. Half of its hospitals and health centers have been damaged by bombing, and the health system was close to collapse even before the pandemic. A large number of medical personnel have fled the country seeking safety and opportunities abroad. Tens of thousands of its residents live in crowded tent settlements, where social distancing and even regular hand-washing are all but impossible. And increasing violence in the region is now threatening to make matters worse.
Large parts of Idlib and neighboring Aleppo province remain in the hands of Syria’s armed opposition, dominated by radical groups including Al-Qaeda-affiliated militants who have struggled to respond to the outbreak, which intensified in August, apparently driven by the more contagious delta variant and gatherings for the Muslim feast of Eid Al-Adha.
Cases and deaths have also been increasing in recent weeks in government-held areas and those under the control of US-backed Kurdish-led fighters in the east, but the situation appears to be worse in Idlib, though it’s hard to measure the true toll anywhere.
In response, the political arm of the insurgent group that runs Idlib has closed some markets, forced restaurants to serve outdoor meals only, and delayed the opening of schools by a week.
But most residents are daily laborers who could not survive if they stopped working, making full lockdowns impossible.
“If they don’t work, they cannot eat,” said Idlib resident Ahmad Said, who added that most people cannot even afford to buy masks.
What’s more, a population that has suffered through so much already is often too weary to follow restrictions that have tested people even in easier circumstances.
“It is as if people have gotten used to death,” said Salwa Abdul-Rahman, an opposition activist who reports on events in Idlib. “Those who were not killed by regime and Russian airstrikes are being killed now by coronavirus.”
The vaccination campaign meanwhile, has been slow, though the arrival of some 350,000 doses of a Chinese vaccine earlier this month could help. According to the World Health Organization, only about 2.5 percent of Idlib’s population has received at least one shot.
The new virus outbreak also comes amid the most serious increase in violence in Idlib, 18 months after a truce reached between Turkey and Russia who support rival sides in Syria’s conflict brought relative calm. In recent weeks, airstrikes and artillery shelling by government forces have left scores of people dead or wounded.
At Al-Ziraa hospital, Dr. Muhammad Abdullah says there is no sign that the outbreak has reached its peak yet.
But for some Idlib residents, getting infected is the least of their worries.
“We have gone through more difficult situations than coronavirus,” said resident Ali Dalati, walking through a market without wearing a mask. “We are not afraid of coronavirus.”