China hails Xinjiang jobs success as criticism mounts

Beijing has come under intense international criticism over its policies in the resource-rich region. (File/AFP)
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Updated 17 September 2020

China hails Xinjiang jobs success as criticism mounts

  • Rights groups say as many as one million Uighurs and other mostly Muslim minorities are being held in internment camps in Xinjiang
  • On Thursday the government published a white paper staunchly defending its policy in the region

BEIJING: China lauded the success of its vocational and jobs schemes in the troubled Xinjiang region on Thursday, just days after the US government said they were being operated from facilities run like “concentration camps.”
Beijing has come under intense international criticism over its policies in the resource-rich region, where rights groups say as many as one million Uighurs and other mostly Muslim minorities are being held in internment camps.
US customs said Monday it would bar a raft of Chinese products from Xinjiang over fears of forced labor, saying “religious and ethnic minorities are... forced to work in heinous conditions with no recourse and no freedom.”
Homeland Security Acting Deputy Secretary Ken Cuccinelli told reporters: “This is not a vocational center, it is a concentration camp.”
But Beijing says the centers are for vocational training, necessary for counter terrorism efforts and to provide education for alleviating poverty.
On Thursday the government published a white paper staunchly defending its policy in the region, where it says training programs, work schemes and better education mean life has improved.
The report says Xinjiang has “vigorously implemented employment projects, enhanced vocational training, and expanded employment channels and capacity.”
It says vocational training for millions has improved the quality of the workforce.
“Xinjiang has built a large knowledge-based, skilled and innovative workforce that meets the requirements of the new era,” the report reads.
Training includes teaching written and spoken Mandarin, labor skills and giving knowledge of urban life, according to the report, which says rural people have started businesses or taken employment in factories after state support.
Every year between 2014 and 2019, Xinjiang gave “training sessions” to an average of 1.29 million urban and rural workers, it says, adding that employment policies “meet the people’s needs (and) improve their wellbeing.”
However, the white paper warns there is a low level of vocational skills and says “terrorists, separatists and religious extremists” have encouraged the public not to learn Chinese, to “reject modern science, and refuse to improve their vocational skills.”
Swedish clothing giant H&M said this week it was ending its relationship with a Chinese yarn producer over accusations of “forced labor” in Xinjiang, which is China’s largest cotton growing area.
Beijing has denied claims of forced labor and in Tuesday’s report said it would take “resolute action” against it.
The EU meanwhile has urged China to allow independent observers to travel to the highly surveilled region.
China this week said experts were “welcome” but did not detail if they would be allowed free access to the controversial faciltiies.
State media frequently shows apparently happy vocational students studying or working in the large facilities.
But rights groups have warned of forced detentions and political indoctrination as part of a campaign by the Chinese Communist Party to erase the ethnic group’s identity and culture.
In a white paper on Xinjiang in March, China defended its controversial security crackdown and said nearly 13,000 “terrorists” have been arrested there since 2014.


Afghan mothers celebrate children’s ID move

Updated 19 September 2020

Afghan mothers celebrate children’s ID move

  • President Ghani’s amendment is an ‘important mark in history,’ activists say

KABUL: Women in Afghanistan have welcomed President Ashraf Ghani’s decision to sign an amendment that allows the name of a mother to be printed on childrens’ national identity cards.

Activists said on Saturday that it was a “significant” victory for women’s rights in the deeply conservative country.

Ghani made the decision on Thursday without securing parliamentary approval, despite his government saying earlier this month that the amendment would require a house endorsement before being signed into law.

However, speaking to Arab News on Saturday, Ghani’s chief spokesman Sediq Seddiqi said: “Since the Parliament is in recess (annual leave), the cabinet endorsed the amendment and the president signed it into law.”

Endorsing the president’s move, Breshna Rabi, a woman lawmaker from northern Balkh, about 450 km from Kabul, said that the bill did not need a “debate” because it was not a “controversial issue.”

She added: “This is great news and a victory for women in Afghanistan. Not only women, but men also support and welcome this decision both within and outside the parliament.”

Rabi was joined by independent actor Freshta Kazemi, who hailed the move as a “historic milestone” for the country.

“Including the Afghan mother’s name on the national ID is an important mark in Afghan history on the changing and emerging identity of the nascent Afghan democracy. It only makes sense that all our mothers’ identities are now honored on an institutional identity level,” she told Arab News.

While Ghani was praised across the country, several people said credit should also be given to a 28-year-old university student Laleh Osmany, who championed the cause by launching the #whereismyname social media campaign three years ago to fight Afghanistan’s “misogynistic” culture.

A crucial part of her campaign, Osmany said, was pressuring authorities to include the name of a mother next to the father on national IDs, especially for women who were divorced, had lost their husbands in war, or whose spouses were missing.

“They faced tough times sorting out legal issues such as the right to inheritance, guardianship or issuance of passports for themselves or their children in the absence of a father, ” Osmany, a graduate of Islamic law from Herat University, told Arab News.

After the hashtag went viral and she was armed with support from social media users both at home and abroad, Osmany says her efforts finally bore fruit when the Afghan government — after several days of deliberations with religious scholars — amended the census law and accepted the proposal earlier this month.

On Saturday, Osmany said she could not “contain her joy” after hearing of the president’s decision two days ago.

“There is no doubt that this victory is the result of a persistent campaign among campaigners and citizens, both men and women. The government also stood by citizens, and I express my gratitude to the president himself and his deputies for their support. I also thank everyone, men and women who supported our campaign and raised their voice, and congratulate all campaigners,” she told Arab News.

It is a rare win for women’s rights activists in the deeply conservative and male-dominated country, where taboos mean a women’s names are often missing from wedding invitations and even graves.

In public, young children and sometimes adult men often fight if someone mentions the name of their mother or sister — an act seen as an attempt to bring dishonor and shame to a family.

According to estimates shared by the Statistics and Information Authority, women make up 49 percent of the total Afghan population of 32.9 million.

While there are 68 women in the 250-member parliament, with several serving in the cabinet, many women have struggled to assert themselves as legal guardians of their children, both in government offices or when carrying out business transactions in the absence of a man.

Recognizing the historical significance of the move, Heather Barr, interim co-director of the women’s rights division of Human Rights Watch said in a statement: “Good news on women’s rights does not happen every day in Afghanistan.”

She added that the law is a “major victory” for Afghan women’s rights activists, who for several years have campaigned for both parents to be named. She said it would have a “domino effect” on their lives.

“The reform will have important consequences, making it easier for women to obtain an education, health care, passports and other documentation for their children. It will be especially significant for women who are widowed, divorced, separated or dealing with abusive parents,” she said.

Ghani’s signed the amendment amid intra-Afghan talks with the Taliban in Doha, Qatar, that aim to end more than 40 years of war and organize the departure of US-led troops from Afghanistan by next spring.

The Taliban banned women from education and jobs during its five-year rule, until it was toppled from power in late 2001. It has, however, pledged to uphold women’s rights as part of the peace process and negotiations.

Commenting on the campaign, Sayed Akbar Agha, a former Taliban commander, said last week that “mentioning mothers’ names on IDs was a dishonor.”

Experts have said that, while the move may be an important first step to promote women’s rights in the country, “it isn’t enough.”

Wali Ullah Shaheen, a former journalist, said: “Women need education, training and more importantly security rather than mentioning their names on ID.”

The government has been under fire for failing to stop targeted killings of women activists and officials in controlled areas, including Kabul in recent months, with prominent actor Saba Sahar and a woman negotiator in the intra-Afghan talks, Fawzia Koofi, being the latest victims.

Osmany, too, said she faced challenges and “received threats from unknown people” requesting she abandon her campaign.

When asked about her plans for the future, Osmany said she will “take a break for now.”

She added: “This campaign made my hair to go white. Working honestly in Afghanistan is difficult.”