Sudan still in crisis a year after Bashir’s ouster

In this file photo taken on December 14, 2019, Sudan's deposed military president Omar al-Bashir sits in a defendant's cage during his corruption trial at a court in Khartoum. (AFP)
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Updated 09 April 2020

Sudan still in crisis a year after Bashir’s ouster

  • Bashir was overthrown on April 11, 2019 by the military
  • The protests against Bashir erupted in December 2018 after the government in effect tripled the price of bread

KHARTOUM: A year after one of Africa’s longest serving leaders, Omar Al-Bashir, was ousted from power in the face of mass street protests, Sudan is still reeling from daunting crises including deep economic woes.

Bashir was overthrown on April 11, 2019 by the military, which was responding to mounting public anger against his three decades of iron-fisted rule.

He was arrested and detained in a Khartoum jail and in December ordered to serve two years in a correctional center for corruption.

He still faces separate charges over the killing of protesters and the 1989 coup that brought him to power.

Authorities have also agreed that Bashir should stand trial before the International Criminal Court on charges of genocide and war crimes committed from 2003 in the
Darfur conflict between the Arab-dominated government and ethnic minority rebels.

Since August last year a transitional government — comprised of civilians and military officials — has taken over the reins of power in Sudan.

But the political transition to full civilian rule is fragile in a country where a creaking economy — its dysfunction largely blamed on Bashir-era policies — risks a collapse that could spark fresh social unrest.

The protests against Bashir erupted in December 2018 after the government in effect tripled the price of bread.

“By far the main challenge facing the transitional period is the very same constellation of factors that contributed to the demise of Bashir’s rule,” said Magdi el-Gizouli of the Rift Valley Institute.

The main problems Sudan’s new leaders now face, he said, are the “reconstitution of the political order... the deep and punishing economic crisis and the multiplying costs of maintaining social peace.”

In August, Sudan formed a technocratic government on the back of a power-sharing deal between top military brass and protest leaders.

The cabinet, headed by seasoned economist Abdalla Hamdok, is tasked with steering the country during a three-year transition through myriad obstacles.

Soaring inflation, a huge public debt and tricky efforts to forge peace with rebels are among the major challenges.

Sudan’s economy, already suffering from long-running US sanctions, was badly hit in 2011 when oil-rich South Sudan broke away in a negotiated divorce with Bashir’s government.

The US announced an end to its 20-year-old trade embargo against Sudan in October 2017, but kept the country on its state sponsors of terrorism list.

Hamdok’s administration is now hoping that the lifting of US sanctions on 157 Sudanese firms in March will help attract foreign investment, but the future still looks grim.

Households still suffer frequent power cuts and some Sudanese still queue for hours to buy staple foods like bread or petrol.

“Economic recovery in Sudan will be a long road and will require the thoughtful, sustained and coordinated support of traditional donors such as the EU, UK, Japan and the US as well as Gulf states,” said Jonas Horner of the International Crisis Group.

“Long-term external technical and financial support is required to pull Sudan out of its economic mire.”

Hamdok’s government has been pushing to boost the country’s international standing and ease tensions with the US, and in December the premier visited Washington.
Authorities in February said they had agreed to compensate families of the victims of the USS Cole bombing in Yemen’s Aden harbor, for which Al-Qaeda claimed responsibility.

The United States said the bombers who had carried out the attack in 2000 were supported and trained in Sudan.

Khartoum had always denied the charges but agreed to the settlement to fulfil a key US condition for removing it from the terrorism blacklist.

“While such measures are important steps in trying to re-establish Sudan’s credibility abroad, they are controversial at home particularly with people close to the old regime,” said Marina Ottaway, Middle East fellow at the Wilson Center.

Sudan’s political transition has also been tested by several security incidents in recent months.

In January, five people including two soldiers were killed when Sudanese troops crushed a rebellion by Bashir loyalists at the long-feared security agency who were angered by a retirement plan.

And in March, Hamdok survived unharmed after an unclaimed bomb and gun attack targeted his convoy in Khartoum.

“There is no shortage of possible suspects,” said Ottaway, adding however that the most threatening scenario would be “if elements of the military were found to be involved.”

And while Sudan continues to face sporadic communal violence in the country’s far-flung regions, including Darfur, authorities have started thorny talks with rebel groups over a possible peace deal in South Kordofan and Blue Nile states.

“We have come a long way with armed rebel groups,” information minister and government spokesman Faisal Saleh has said.

“The outstanding issues are not big but they are complicated.”

Dozens wounded in clashes as hundreds of protesters flood Beirut

Updated 07 June 2020

Dozens wounded in clashes as hundreds of protesters flood Beirut

  • Hundreds filled the streets in and around the protest hub of Martyrs Square in the center of BeirutHundreds filled the streets in and around the protest hub of Martyrs Square in the center of Beirut
  • Soldiers moved in to restore order, said the state-run news agency ANI

BEIRUT: Protesters poured into the streets of the Lebanese capital Saturday to decry the collapse of the economy, as clashes erupted between supporters and opponents of the Iran-backed Shiite group Hezbollah.
Hundreds filled the streets in and around the protest hub of Martyrs Square in the center of Beirut, with skirmishes also between protesters and security forces, who fired tear gas.
Forty-eight were wounded in the violence, 11 of whom were hospitalized, while the rest were treated at the scene, the Lebanese Red Cross said.
It was the first major anti-government rally attracting demonstrators from across the country since authorities relaxed a lockdown imposed in mid-March to fight the spread of the coronavirus.
“We came on the streets to demand our rights, call for medical care, education, jobs and the basic rights that human beings need to stay alive,” said 21-year-old student Christina.
Many protesters wore face-masks as part of hygiene measures imposed to fight the pandemic, which has severely exacerbated an economic crisis, the worst since the debt-burdened country’s 1975-1990 civil war.
But Saturday’s protest turned violent as supporters of Hezbollah clashed with some demonstrators calling on the group to disarm.
Hezbollah is the only group to have kept its weapons since the end of the Lebanese civil war, deeply dividing Lebanon along political lines.

“Weapons should be only in the hands of the army,” said Sana, a 57-year-old female protester from Nabatiyeh, a city in southern Lebanon, a Hezbollah stronghold.
Soldiers formed a human chain separating the two sides after supporters and opponents of Hezbollah threw stones at each other, an AFP photographer said.
Supporters of Hezbollah, which is also represented in the government and parliament, chanted: “Shiite, Shiite.”
On Saturday evening, there was an exchange of gunfire between residents of a Sunni district, a stronghold of the former prime minister Saad Hariri, and a nearby Shiite neighborhood, a stronghold of the Amal party, a security source said.
Soldiers moved in to restore order, said the state-run news agency ANI.
There were clashes too in the northern city of Tripoli, an AFP correspondent there reported.
Security forces fired tear gas near a street leading into the parliament building behind Martyrs Square, after some demonstrators pelted them with stones and ransacked shops.
Some protesters set fire to garbage bins as riot police advanced toward them.
Lebanon has been rocked by a series of political crises in recent years, before an economic crunch helped trigger unprecedented cross-sectarian mass protests in October.
The demonstrations forced the government to resign and a new one headed by Prime Minister Hassan Diab was approved by parliament in February, tasked with launching reforms and combatting corruption.
But many Lebanese say the new administration has failed to find solutions to the country’s manifold problems, including a grinding recession and spiralling inflation.
The local currency has lost more than half of its value on the black market in recent months, falling from the official rate of 1,507 to more than 4,000 pounds to the dollar. Banks have gradually stopped all dollar withdrawals.
A sign held aloft by protesters on Saturday called for “a government that eliminates corruption, not one that protects corruption.”
More than 35 percent of Lebanese are unemployed, while poverty has soared to engulf more than 45 percent of the population, according to official estimates.
Lebanon is also one of the world’s most indebted countries, with a debt equivalent to more than 170 percent of its GDP. The country defaulted on its external borrowing for the first time in March.
Diab’s government adopted an economic recovery plan in April and has begun negotiations with the International Monetary Fund, to try to unlock billions of dollars in aid.