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Reopening of Cypriot ghost town adds to Greece-Turkey tensions

Reopening of Cypriot ghost town adds to Greece-Turkey tensions

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A woman walks past a cordoned-off building in Varosha. (Reuters)

The Cyprus dispute, together with tensions over the energy exploration activities of regional actors in the eastern Mediterranean, has several domestic and international dimensions. One of the internal issues concerns Varosha (Maras in Turkish), which is an abandoned district of the ancient city of Famagusta and one of the most iconic symbols of the division of the island. What is the importance of Varosha and why are we talking about it today?
Cyprus has been divided since 1974, when Turkey sent troops to the island in the aftermath of a Greek-inspired coup. The Cypriot administration in the south is internationally recognized, while only Turkey recognizes the Turkish administration in the north. Subsequent talks between the two sides and all efforts to reunite the island have so far failed to produce any breakthrough in terms of resolving the key disputes.
Varosha has resembled a ghost town since 1974. It remains under UN surveillance as a no man’s land between the north and the south. The city, which once attracted tourists from around the world, is protected by a 1984 UN Security Council (UNSC) resolution that says the town can only be resettled by its former inhabitants. It has remained out of bounds to the public ever since. The land is on the northern side, but the buildings on it belong mostly to people in the south.
A few days ahead of the first round of the northern administration’s presidential election, the issue of reopening Varosha came to the fore. During a joint press conference in Ankara with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, northern Cypriot Prime Minister Ersin Tatar last week announced the decision to reopen parts of the town’s beachfront and the main street, Democracy Road, to the public. In an interview with the Turkish press, Tatar said that he is not aiming to confiscate any buildings, stressed that a commission has been organized to work on the identification of properties, and stated there will be options for the owners.
“The Varosha issue is a national cause above all political debates,” Tatar said. Erdogan supported his statement by saying: “We hope that Maras will be fully opened for use. We are ready to provide every support to the (Turkish Cypriot) authorities in this regard.” Erdogan also rebuffed the international criticism of the decision.
Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said the move was a clear violation of the UNSC resolution, while Cypriots said they would file for recourse with the global body. EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell and UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres also expressed concern that the decision may complicate efforts to resume the Cyprus settlement talks and could heighten tensions.

International leaders said the decision may complicate efforts to resume the Cyprus settlement talks.

Sinem Cengiz

The partial reopening of Varosha took place last Thursday, three days before the first round of the presidential elections. As a result of that vote, Tatar and his rival, incumbent Mustafa Akinci, will face off in the second round on Sunday.
Akinci supports the eventual reunification of Cyprus, with the island continuing as an EU member, while Tatar, backed by Ankara, favors closer ties with Turkey. Tatar won 32.35 percent of the votes in the first round, with Akinci on 29.84 percent, according to the Associated Press. The second round is crucial as northern Cypriot voters will decide whether they want to see another attempt to reunite the island or if they believe separation is a better course.
Not all Turkish Cypriot politicians were happy with the decision to reopen Varosha. Foreign Minister Kudret Ozersay criticized the announcement, saying: “Closed Varosha was perceived as if it was opened under the Turkish Cypriot administration and a move was made for the election.” He accused Tatar of making an “election investment.” Akinci said the decision was a “mistake that will put the Turkish Cypriot people in a difficult situation on the international stage.”
So Sunday’s voting will take place amid widespread concerns over the reopening of Varosha and the growing dispute between Turkey and Greece in the eastern Mediterranean. The Turkish research vessel Oruc Reis, which was last month pulled back to open the door for diplomacy, has been redeployed to disputed waters. Ankara said it made the move following provocative acts by Athens, including a decision to hold military drills in the Aegean Sea on Turkey’s main national holiday.
Needless to say, tensions in the eastern Mediterranean have been high for months and the diplomatic dispute over Varosha may put a further strain on relations between Greece and Turkey. The fallout over the reopening and a lack of trust can only be overcome through dialogue and cooperation between the two sides. They must start understanding each other’s concerns. In 2007, I had a chance to see the abandoned city from the beach — the place I saw should not be a source of yet another dispute, but rather a chance to rebuild trust on the island.

  • Sinem Cengiz is a Turkish political analyst who specializes in Turkey's relations with the Middle East. Twitter: @SinemCngz
Disclaimer: Views expressed by writers in this section are their own and do not necessarily reflect Arab News' point-of-view

Pompeo seeks reversal of ‘provocative’ North Cyprus move to reopen Varosha

A woman waves Turkish and Turkish Cypriot flags inside the abandoned coastal resort of Varosha, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus, October 8, 2020. (Reuters)
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Updated 16 October 2020

Pompeo seeks reversal of ‘provocative’ North Cyprus move to reopen Varosha

  • State Department: ‘The United States continues to support a comprehensive settlement to reunify the island as a bizonal, bicommunal federation, which would benefit all Cypriots’
  • An affluent neighborhood of high rise hotels, residences and shops, Varosha’s 39,000 Greek Cypriot residents fled in the second wave of an invasion mounted by Turkey in 1974

WASHINGTON: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo voiced deep concern about Northern Cyprus’ reopening part of a beachfront resort abandoned since Turkey invaded the island in 1974, calling it provocative and seeking its reversal, the State Department said on Friday.
Pompeo made the comments in a call with Cypriot Foreign Minister Nikos Christodoulides, the Department said, referring to Turkish Cypriot authorities partial reopening of the beach town of Varosha, a former resort area fenced off and abandoned in no-man’s land since the 1974 invasion divided the island.
“The Secretary expressed deep concern and noted such a move was provocative and inconsistent with UN Security Council Resolutions 550 and 789 and not conducive to a return to settlement talks,” State Department spokeswoman Morgan Ortagus said in a statement.

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“The Secretary urges a reversal of the re-opening,” she added. “The United States continues to support a comprehensive settlement to reunify the island as a bizonal, bicommunal federation, which would benefit all Cypriots and the entire region.”
An affluent neighborhood of high rise hotels, residences and shops, Varosha’s 39,000 Greek Cypriot residents fled in the second wave of an invasion mounted by Turkey in 1974 triggered by a brief Greek inspired coup. It was sealed off by the Turkish military, and effectively left to rot.


Putin says Russia could adopt US preemptive strike concept

Updated 09 December 2022

Putin says Russia could adopt US preemptive strike concept

  • "We are just thinking about it. They weren’t shy to openly talk about it during the past years,” Putin said
  • For years, the Kremlin has expressed concern about US efforts to develop the so-called Conventional Prompt Global Strike capability

MOSCOW: Russian President Vladimir Putin said Friday that Moscow could adopt what he described as a US concept of using preemptive military strikes, noting it has the weapons to do the job, in a blunt statement amid rising Russia-NATO tensions over Ukraine.
“We are just thinking about it. They weren’t shy to openly talk about it during the past years,” Putin said, referring to the US policy, as he attended a summit in Kyrgyzstan of a Moscow-dominated economic alliance of ex-Soviet nations.
For years, the Kremlin has expressed concern about US efforts to develop the so-called Conventional Prompt Global Strike capability that envisions hitting an adversary’s strategic targets with precision-guided conventional weapons anywhere in the world within one hour.
“Speaking about a disarming strike, maybe it’s worth thinking about adopting the ideas developed by our US counterparts, their ideas of ensuring their security,” Putin said with a thin smile, noting that such a preemptive strike was intended to knock out command facilities.
He claimed that Russia already has commissioned hypersonic weapons capable of carrying out such a strike, while the US hasn’t yet deployed them. He also claimed that Russia now has cruise missiles that surpass their US equivalents.
While Putin appeared to refer to conventional precision-guided weapons when he talked about possibly mimicking the US strategy, he specifically noted that the US hasn’t ruled out the first use of nuclear weapons.
“If the potential adversary believes that it can use the theory of a preemptive strike and we don’t, it makes us think about the threats posed by such ideas in other countries’ defensive posture,” he said.
In Washington, advisers to President Joe Biden viewed Putin’s comments as “saber-rattling” and another veiled warning that he could deploy a tactical nuclear weapon, according to a US official who was not authorized to comment and spoke on the condition of the anonymity.
The official noted that Russian military doctrine has long stated that Moscow reserves the right to first use of a nuclear weapon in response to large scale military aggression.
John Erath, senior policy director for the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, also viewed Putin’s statement as yet another attempt to raise the nuclear threat.
“He doesn’t quite say we’re going to launch nuclear weapons, but he wants the dialogue in the US and Europe to be, ‘The longer this war goes on, the greater the threat of nuclear weapons might be used,’” Erath said.
Putin was asked Wednesday at a Kremlin conference whether Russia could commit to forswearing a first strike and responded that such an obligation might prevent Russia from tapping its nuclear arsenal even if it came under a nuclear attack.
“If it doesn’t use it first under any circumstances, it means that it won’t be the second to use it either, because the possibility of using it in case of a nuclear strike on our territory will be sharply limited,” he responded.
He elaborated on that answer Friday, saying Russia’s nuclear doctrine is based on the “launch on warning” concept, which envisions nuclear weapons’ use in the face of an imminent nuclear attack spotted by its early warning systems.
“When the early warning system receives a signal about a missile attack, we launch hundreds of missiles that are impossible to stop,” he said, smiling. “Enemy missile warheads would inevitably reach the territory of the Russian Federation. But nothing would be left of the enemy too, because it’s impossible to intercept hundreds of missiles. And this, of course, is a factor of deterrence.”
Russia’s nuclear doctrine states the country can use nuclear weapons if it comes under a nuclear strike or if it faces an attack with conventional weapons that threatens “the very existence” of the Russian state.
Since sending Russian troops into Ukraine in February, Putin has repeatedly said that Moscow was ready to use “all available means” to protect its territory and has rejected Western criticism of nuclear saber-rattling.
“I understand that ever since nuclear weapons, the weapons of mass destruction have appeared, all people — the entirety of humankind — have been worried what will happen to the planet and all of us,” he said.
At a ceremony Friday at US Strategic Command, which has responsibility for the nation’s nuclear weapons, Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin said Putin’s repeated threats were irresponsible.
“As the Kremlin continues its cruel and unprovoked war of choice against Ukraine, the whole world has seen Putin engage and deeply irresponsible nuclear saber-rattling So make no mistake, nuclear powers have a profound responsibility to avoid provocative behavior and to lower the risk of proliferation and to prevent escalation and nuclear war.”


UN carves out sanctions exemptions for humanitarian aid

Updated 09 December 2022

UN carves out sanctions exemptions for humanitarian aid

  • The resolution applies to UN agencies as well as humanitarian organizations participating in UN humanitarian work
  • The text gained 14 votes in favor in the Council, with only India abstaining

UNITED NATIONS, United States: The United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution on Friday to allow humanitarian aid to continue unhindered into countries targeted by UN sanctions, particularly frozen assets.
The text states that “payments of funds,” “economic resources” or “the provision of goods and services necessary to ensure the timely delivery of humanitarian assistance... are permitted and are not a violation of the asset freezes imposed by this Council.”
The resolution applies to UN agencies as well as humanitarian organizations participating in UN humanitarian work.
The humanitarian community has been calling for the Council to ensure that “unintentional, second-order impacts don’t impede their work,” said US ambassador to the UN Linda Thomas-Greenfield. She said they wanted was a “clear, standard carve-out” for all UN sanctions regimes.
“And that is exactly what we are voting on today,” she said, adding that the resolution would “save lives.”
The text — which was also supported by several dozen states even outside the Security Council — gained 14 votes in favor in the Council, with only India abstaining.
“Our concerns emanate from proven instances of terrorist groups taking full advantage of such humanitarian carve-outs and making a mockery of sanctions regimes,” in particular those against the so-called Daesh group and Al-Qaeda, said India’s ambassador Ruchira Kamboj, who is heading the Council this month.
The resolution specifies that the exemption is only valid for two years for Al-Qaeda and IS.
“There have also been several cases of terrorist groups in our neighborhood, including those listed by this council, reincarnating themselves as humanitarian organizations and civil society groups precisely to evade the sanctions,” the Indian ambassador said.
The International Committee of the Red Cross hailed the vote as “an important day in the history of humanitarian action,” expressing hope that the new rule would mean “better services for communities, such as medical care, drilling of wells for clean drinking water, or visits to people detained in conflict.”
There are currently more than a dozen UN Security Council sanctions regimes involving North Korea, Libya, the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Taliban.
Last year, after the return to power of the Taliban in Afghanistan, the Security Council implemented an exception for humanitarian aid to the war-torn country.


Brittney Griner back home in US after Russian prisoner swap

Updated 09 December 2022

Brittney Griner back home in US after Russian prisoner swap

  • Russia's invasion of Ukraine after her arrest complicated matters further
  • The deal that saw Griner exchanged for notorious arms dealer Viktor Bout achieved a top goal for President Joe Biden

SAN ANTONIO, United States: Brittney Griner returned to the United States early Friday, nearly 10 months after the basketball star’s detention in Russia made her the most high-profile American jailed abroad and set off a political firestorm.
Griner’s status and prominence in women’s basketball and her imprisonment heightened concerns for her and brought tremendous attention to the case. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine after her arrest complicated matters further.
The deal that saw Griner exchanged for notorious arms dealer Viktor Bout achieved a top goal for President Joe Biden. But the US failed to win freedom for another American, Paul Whelan, who has been jailed for nearly four years.
Asked if more such swaps could happen, Russian President Vladimir Putin said Friday that “everything is possible,” noting that “compromises have been found” to clear the way for Thursday’s exchange.
Biden’s authorization to release Bout, the Russian felon once nicknamed “the Merchant of Death,” underscored the heightened urgency that his administration faced to get Griner home, particularly after the recent resolution of her criminal case on drug charges and her subsequent transfer to a penal colony.
Griner, a two-time Olympic gold medalist and Phoenix Mercury pro basketball star, was seen getting off a plane that landed Friday at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland in Texas.
“So happy to have Brittney back on US soil. Welcome home BG!” tweeted Roger Carstens, the special presidential envoy for hostage affairs.
The WNBA star, who also played pro basketball in Russia, was arrested at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo Airport in February after Russian authorities said she was carrying vape canisters with cannabis oil. The US State Department declared Griner to be “wrongfully detained” — a charge that Russia has sharply rejected.
Griner pleaded guilty in July but still faced trial because admitting guilt in Russia’s judicial system does not automatically end a case. She was sentenced to nine years.
She acknowledged in court that she possessed canisters with cannabis oil but said she had no criminal intent and accidentally packed them. Her defense team presented written statements that she had been prescribed cannabis to treat pain.
The Russian Foreign Ministry confirmed Thursday’s swap, saying in a statement carried by Russian news agencies that the exchange took place in Abu Dhabi and Bout had been flown home.
Biden spoke by phone with Griner. US officials said she would be offered specialized medical services and counseling.
In releasing Bout, the US freed a former Soviet Army lieutenant colonel whom the Justice Department once described as one of the world’s most prolific arms dealers. He was arrested in Thailand in 2008 and extradited to the US in 2010.
Bout was serving a 25-year sentence on charges that he conspired to sell tens of millions of dollars in weapons that USofficials said were to be used against Americans.


India's BJP sweeps Gujrat in poll seen as litmus test for 2024 general elections

Updated 09 December 2022

India's BJP sweeps Gujrat in poll seen as litmus test for 2024 general elections

  • Narendra Modi’s party won 156 seats in Gujarat’s 182-seat legislature on Thursday
  • National elections are due in 2024 when Modi is widely expected to run for a third term

NEW DELHI: Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s victory in his home state Gujarat has shown a strong performance, but experts said on Friday that the win was not necessarily a trendsetter for the national vote that is less than two years away.  

In its best-ever performance in the western state of around 60 million people, Modi’s Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party on Thursday won 156 seats in Gujarat’s 182-seat legislature, up from 99.  

The party has been ruling Gujarat since 1995, and Modi served as its chief minister for 12 years before becoming prime minister in 2014. He was ruling the state in 2002, when 2,000 people, most of them Muslims, were killed in the worst outbreaks of sectarian violence since the country’s independence.  

After Thursday’s win, he took to Twitter to thank his voters, saying that he was “overcome with a lot of emotion” by the results. Indian media have been projecting the victory as a litmus test for the 2024 general elections, when Modi is expected to seek the premiership for a third time.  

The state election result was all the more remarkable, given his electorate has been frustrated by rising prices and unemployment.  

“It’s a baffling victory in Gujarat given the government’s failure and poor human development index,” Prof. Ajay Gudavarthy of the Center of Political Studies at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi told Arab News.  

But the unexpected landslide win is no guarantee of victory in 2024, and the opposition still has time to mobilize.  

“There is no cakewalk, and 2024 is still an open game,” Gudavarthy said. “If the opposition brings a robust agenda, you can see the mood of the nation change very fast. India is still an open society.” 

Earlier this year, the BJP won big in Uttar Pradesh, India’s most populous state, which sends the most members to parliament. But the ruling party lost power to the opposition Congress in Himachal Pradesh, and to the Aam Aadmi Party in New Delhi, despite ruling the capital region for the past 15 years.  

“There is a lot of discontent among people over the way the Modi government has been ruling the country. There is a problem with governance, unemployment is high and a large section of the population is suffering. In this situation, you cannot expect Modi to come back so easily,” Shashi Shekhar Singh, political science professor at Delhi University, told Arab News.  

“The Unify India campaign of the opposition leader Rahul Gandhi is connecting with the masses, and I am sure it will impact the elections in 2024.”  

But the opposition’s own fragmentation is what dealt a blow to its mobilization. 

Television anchor and senior political commentator Urmilesh saw not only a “lack of unity” but also of a clear agenda among opposition parties.  

It is to Modi’s advantage, he said, “if the opposition does not get their act together and channelize their energy to tap the prevalent discontent.” 


Russian oligarch wins access to second impounded yacht on French Riviera

Updated 09 December 2022

Russian oligarch wins access to second impounded yacht on French Riviera

  • Customs agents seized the 17-metre "La Petite Ourse II" on March 21
  • The Rouen appeals court ruled that customs officers had not followed correct procedures when they boarded the vessel yacht

PARIS: A French court on Friday ordered the customs agency to release a second impounded yacht owned by a Russian billionaire hit by European sanctions, citing procedural errors made during its seizure.
Customs agents seized the 17-meter “La Petite Ourse II” on March 21 after its owner, Alexey Kuzmichev, one of the main shareholders of Russia’s Alfa Bank, was sanctioned by the EU for his ties to President Vladimir Putin.
The Rouen appeals court ruled that customs officers had not followed correct procedures when they boarded the vessel, which was moored at Cannes on the Cote d’Azur.
His other yacht, La Petite Ourse, which is moored in nearby Antibes and was also seized in March, was released in October after a similar ruling by the Paris appeals court.
Customs agents in both cases had cited fraud investigations when they presented themselves to shipyard authorities, which under French law permits customs to search a vessel but did not apply in this context.
According to his lawyer, Philippe Blanchetier, Kuzmichev has not used La Petite Ourse since the first ruling in October and wanted to sue the French authorities to win back access to both boats in order to make a point, not to go out to sea.
“We want the respect of the law. We cannot take measures against countries, saying rights are not respected, and then not respect the law (ourselves),” he said.
The ruling underlines the challenges faced by European nations in freezing the assets of Russian oligarchs.
The customs agency did not reply to requests for comment immediately.