Human harm, climate costs to countries like Pakistan dominate UN summit

In this picture taken on September 27, 2022, internally displaced flood-affected people wade through a flooded area in Dadu district of Sindh province. (AFP/File)
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Updated 07 November 2022

Human harm, climate costs to countries like Pakistan dominate UN summit

  • Human side of contentious issues of climate change will likely dominate climate negotiations in Egypt
  • While Pakistan was flooding, six energy companies made $97.49 billion in profits from July to September

SHARM EL-SHEIKH, Egypt: It was a total loss — the type that is usually glossed over in big impersonal statistics like $40 billion in damage from this summer’s Pakistan floods that put one-third of the nation underwater.

“We lost everything, our home and our possessions,” said Taj Mai, a mother of seven who is four months pregnant and in a flood relief camp in Pakistan’s Punjab province. “At least in a camp our children will get food and milk.”

This is the human side of a contentious issue that will likely dominate climate negotiations in Egypt this month. It’s about big bucks, justice, blame and taking responsibility. Extreme weather is worsening as the world warms, with a study calculating that human-caused climate change increased Pakistan’s flood-causing rain by up to 50 percent.

While Pakistan was flooding, six energy companies — ExxonMobil, Chevron, Shell,BP, Saudi Aramco and Total Energies — made $97.49 billion in profits from July to September. Poorer nations, United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, Europe’s leaders and US President Joe Biden are calling for fossil fuel firms to pay a windfall profits tax. Many want some of that money, along with additional aid from rich nations that spewed the lion’s share of heat-trapping gases, to be used to pay countries victimized by past pollution, like Pakistan.

The issue of polluters paying for their climate messes is called loss and damage in international climate negotiations. It is all about reparations.

“Loss and damage is going to be the priority and the defining factor of whether or not COP27 succeeds,” said Kenyan climate activist Elizabeth Wathuti, referring to the climate talks in Egypt. United Nations top officials say they are looking for “something meaningful in loss and damage” and were “certainly encouraged” by negotiations Friday, Saturday and Sunday that put the issue on the meeting agenda.

Money for loss and damage is different from two other financial aid systems already in place to help poorer nations develop carbon-free energy and adapt to future warming.

Since 2009, the rich nations of the world have promised to spend $100 billion in climate aid for poor nations, with most of it going toward helping wean them off coal, oil and natural gas and build greener energy systems. Officials now want as much as half of that to go to building up systems to help adapt to future climate disasters.

Neither financial pledge has been fulfilled yet, but both don’t address the issue of paying for current and past climate disasters, such as heat waves in India, floods in Pakistan and droughts in Africa.

“Our current levels of global warming at 1.1 degrees Celsius (2 degrees Fahrenheit) have already caused dangerous and widespread losses and damages to nature and to billions of people,” said Climate Analytics scientist Adelle Thomas of the Bahamas.

“Losses and damages are unavoidable and unequally distributed” with poorer nations, the elderly, the poor and vulnerable hit harder, she said.


After years of not wanting to talk about reparations in climate talks, US and European officials say they are willing to have loss and damage discussions. But the US — the No. 1 historic carbon polluter — won’t agree to anything that sounds like liability, special envoy John Kerry said.

US emissions that created warmer temperatures caused at least $32 billion in damage to Pakistan’s gross domestic product between 1990 and 2014, according to calculations by Dartmouth climate researchers Christopher Callahan and Justin Mankin based on past emissions. And that’s only based on temperature-oriented damage, not rainfall.

“Loss and damage is a way of both recognizing past harm and compensating for that past harm,” Mankin said. “These harms are scientifically identifiable. And now it’s up to the politics to either defend that harm or remunerate for that harm.”

The United States in 16 days puts more carbon dioxide into the air from burning fossil fuel than Pakistan does in a year, according to figures by the Global Carbon Project.

American Gas Association CEO Karen Harbert said Americans won’t go for such payments to faraway nations and that’s not the way to think of the issue.

“It’s not just Pakistan. Let’s talk about Puerto Rico. Let’s talk about Louisiana. Other things that are happening here at home that we also need to pay attention to and help our fellow Americans,” Harbert said in an interview with The Associated Press.

“If there was an opportunity to talk to people in Pakistan, I’d say ... the solution is first of all, you have the opportunity with natural gas to have a much cleaner electric system than you have today,” she said.

But for Aaisa Bibi, a pregnant mother of four from Punjab province, cheaper cleaner energy doesn’t mean much when her family has no place to live except a refugee camp.

“With less than 1 percent of the global emissions, Pakistan is certainly not a part of the problem of climate change,” said Shabnam Baloch, the International Red Cross Pakistan director, adding that people like Bibi are just trying to survive floods, heat waves, droughts, low crop yields, water shortages and inflation.

In semi-arid Makueni County in Kenya, where a devastating drought has stretched more than three years, 47-year old goat and sheep farmer John Gichuki said: “It is traumatizing to watch your livestock die of thirst and hunger.”

Gichuki’s maize and legumes crops have failed four consecutive seasons. “The farm is solely on the mercies of climate,” he said.

In India, it’s record heat connected to climate change that caused deaths and ruined crops. Elsewhere it’s devastation from tropical cyclones that are wetter and stronger because of the burning of fossil fuels.

This global issue has a parallel inside the United States in at times contentious discussions about paying for damages caused by slavery.

“In many ways we’re talking about reparations,” said University of Maryland environmental health and justice professor Sacoby Wilson. “It’s an appropriate term to use” he said, because the rich northern countries got the benefits of fossil fuels, while the poorer global south gets the damage in floods, droughts, climate refugees and hunger.

The government of Barbados has suggested changes in how the multinational development banks loan to poorer nations to take into account climate vulnerability and disasters. Pakistan and others have called for debt relief.

It’s “about putting ourselves in everybody else’s shoes,” said Avinash Persaud, special envoy to Barbados Prime Minister Mia Mottley.

Persaud suggests a long-term levy on high oil, coal and natural gas prices, but one done in reverse. At current high energy prices there would be no tax, so no increase in inflation. But once fossil fuel prices decline 10 percent, 1 percent of the price drop would go to a fund to pay victims of climate loss and damage, without adding to the cost of living.

United Nations’ chief Guterres, who has called movement on loss and damage a “litmus test” for success for the Egypt climate conference, has named two high-level national officials to try to hammer out a deal: Germany’s climate envoy and former Greenpeace chief Jennifer Morgan and Chile’s environment minister, Maisa Rojas.

“The fact that it has been adopted as an agenda item demonstrates progress and parties taking a mature and constructive attitude toward this,” UN Climate Secretary Simon Stiell said in a Sunday news conference. “This is a difficult subject area. It’s been floating for thirty plus years. So that the fact that it is there as a substantive agenda item, I believe it bodes well.″

“What will be most telling is how those discussions progress in the substantive discussion over the next couple of weeks,” Stiell said.

Pakistani women take up key roles in Hajj mission as number of pilgrims surge in Saudi Arabia

Updated 10 June 2023

Pakistani women take up key roles in Hajj mission as number of pilgrims surge in Saudi Arabia

  • Over 40 women are currently deployed in the kingdom to serve pilgrims, with 15 more expected to join the mission
  • Religious affairs ministry says more than 50,000 Pakistani people have arrived in Saudi Arabia for annual pilgrimage

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan has deployed more than 40 women with its Hajj mission in Saudi Arabia, with many of them in leadership roles, to serve pilgrims, a religious affairs ministry official said on Saturday, as more than 50,000 pilgrims arrived in the kingdom from the South Asian country.

The Saudi authorities have reinstated the country’s pre-pandemic Hajj quota, allowing 179,210 Pakistani pilgrims to participate in this year’s pilgrimage while removing the upper age limit of 65 years. Around 80,000 of them will perform Hajj under the government scheme, while the rest will be facilitated by private tour operators.

According to Pakistan’s religious affairs ministry, over 50,000 Pakistanis have so far arrived in the kingdom for the annual Islamic pilgrimage since the government launched a special flight operation on May 21.

“Currently, over 40 women are working shoulder to shoulder with men in the Hajj mission in Makkah and Madinah, and approximately 15 more are expected to arrive in the coming days,” Muhammad Umer Butt, a ministry spokesperson, told Arab News over the phone from the kingdom.

“These women are serving in various sections, and some of them are even leading different departments,” he continued, adding that some lady doctors and female paramedics were also contributing to the country’s Hajj medical mission.

Nadia Razzaq, serving as the information technology (IT) in-charge in Makkah, said numerous women were playing crucial roles within the Hajj mission.

“More than 40 women have already arrived in Saudi Arabia to fulfill various responsibilities across different sectors, such as food, accommodation, and transportation,” she told Arab News in a video statement from Makkah.

In this picture, provided with the courtesy of the Hajj Ministry, Pakistani women facilitators attend a Hajj mission meeting in Makkah. (Photo courtesy: Hajj Ministry)

She said that, in addition to their primary responsibilities, women were also performing field duties as required.

“Women are making valuable contributions to every sector of the Hajj operations, showcasing their best efforts,” Razzaq added.

Another woman, Ayesha Ijaz, who is responsible for monitoring the Hajj mission in Makkah, said her role involved overseeing the arrangements made by private tour operators for pilgrims who have arrived in Saudi Arabia.

“This includes addressing their issues and ensuring the provision of the facilities promised to them in Makkah, Madinah, and other locations during the Hajj,” she told Arab News.

In this picture, provided with the courtesy of the Hajj Ministry, Pakistani women facilitators attend a Hajj mission meeting in Makkah. (Photo courtesy: Hajj Ministry)

Since a large number of female pilgrims arrive in Saudi Arabia for Hajj every year, Ijaz said their problems were usually resolved by women volunteers.

“Women staff also hold crucial positions in the Hajj mission, which greatly contributes to our smooth operations,” she added.

Beenish Ashraf, the call center in-charge at Makkah’s main control office, said her department tried to ensure the resolution of pilgrims’ complaints at the earliest by forwarding them to the relevant departments.

“We have employed call agents who handle pilgrims’ calls round the clock,” she told Arab News.

“As soon as we receive these calls, we promptly enter the details into our [online] system, notify the respective sector commander, and contact the relevant department to expedite the resolution of pilgrims’ complaints,” she added.

Furthermore, the call center actively gathered feedback from the pilgrims by conducting follow-up calls and collaborating with other departments to ensure a comprehensive assessment, Ashraf informed.

In this picture, provided with the courtesy of the Hajj Ministry, Pakistani woman officer, Beenish Ashraf leads a call centre of Pakistan's Hajj mission in Makkah, Saudi Arabia on June 10, 2023. (Courtesy: Pakistan's religious affairs ministry)


Pakistan finance minister hints at ‘Plan B’ as revival of IMF bailout hangs in balance

Updated 10 June 2023

Pakistan finance minister hints at ‘Plan B’ as revival of IMF bailout hangs in balance

  • Ishaq Dar says Pakistan is expecting transfer of $2 billion and $1 billion from Saudi Arabia and UAE respectively before June 30
  • Minister says the government has levied only $697 million additional taxes in the budget to promote documentation of economy

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan’s finance minister Senator Ishaq Dar said on Saturday his government was looking for a ‘Plan B’ in case the International Monetary Fund (IMF) did not release a $1.1 billion tranche of the stalled $6.5 billion bailout program Islamabad secured in 2019.

The statement came a day after the minister presented a Rs14.46 trillion ($50.4 billion) budget for the next fiscal year, setting a tax collection target of Rs9.2 trillion ($32 billion) that is 23 percent higher than the last year’s and envisioning a 3.5 percent GDP growth.

The government’s fiscal plan was unveiled amid record inflation, a depreciating currency, and fast-depleting foreign exchange reserves. While it stated its intention to provide relief to financially vulnerable segments, the budget numbers were aimed at securing the tough IMF loan amount to stave off a balance of payments crisis.

“A Plan B is always there and that is self-reliance,” the finance minister said, addressing a post-budget press conference in Islamabad. “Pakistan will not default.”

“If we don’t get it, we have a plan ready …. we hope to receive $1.1 billion [tranche], but there is no chance for the tenth review now,” the finance minister said. “We will only be fair to get the money after the ninth review.”

Pakistan’s IMF bailout program has been stalled since November and is set to expire on June 30, with its 9th and 10th reviews still pending the IMF board’s approval.

The finance minister said Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) had given a commitment of $2 billion and $1 billion respectively to the IMF as external financing support to Pakistan. 

“We expect if this amount was not transferred to Pakistan by June 30, it will come next year then,” he said, clarifying that debt rescheduling from the multilaterals was not on the cards.

“We can always negotiate with the bilateral for an ease-out.”

The finance minister clarified that there was no need to reschedule domestic loans because it would be a “serious issue” if a sovereign country could not fulfil “requirement of own currency.” 

He said the nation would have to “learn to live” as the country could not print dollars to repay external debts.

“We are trying to mobilize exports and remittances for the external debt [repayments],” Dar said.

About the 3.5 percent growth target, he termed it modest, realistic and in line with the IMF projection, admitting that servicing was one of the biggest items in the budget that the government was “trying to reverse.”

The government has paid special attention to agriculture and information technology (IT) sectors in the budget and given them tax exemptions on seeds and the import of machinery, according to Dar.

The economy is out of the woods now as hectic efforts by the government halted further decline of the economy.

He defended the government’s tax and non-tax revenues as “realistic and achievable” that were set after thorough consultations with stakeholders.

The budget levied new taxes of just Rs200 billion ($697 million) as the tax revenue had increased from Rs7,200 billion in the previous fiscal year to Rs9,200 billion.

“These 200 billion rupees taxes are mostly to promote documentation or fix an anomaly. This is not inflationary,” he said, adding that Rs900 billion out of Rs1,074 billion subsidies allocated in the budget were only meant for the power sector.

“This was a major stumbling block between us and the IMF, we have to focus on it,” he said. “No new major subsidy is being given.”

Pakistan’s target of 3.5 percent GDP in 2023-24 fiscal year ‘realistic’ — finance minister 

Updated 10 June 2023

Pakistan’s target of 3.5 percent GDP in 2023-24 fiscal year ‘realistic’ — finance minister 

  • In year ending this month, Pakistan’s GDP was projected to grow just 0.29 percent, fiscal deficit for the following year projected at 6.54 percent 
  • The budget is being closely watched by the International Monetary Fund as the South Asian country seeks further bailout money 

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan’s finance minister said on Saturday a projection in the government’s budget of 3.5 percent economic growth for the year ending in June 2024 was a “realistic target.” 

The target was “on the lower side,” Ishaq Dar told a press conference in Islamabad, a day after presenting the budget for the fiscal year 2023-24. 

The budget is being closely watched by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as the South Asian country seeks further bailout money during an economic and balance of payments crisis. 

In the year ending this month, Pakistan’s gross domestic product (GDP) was projected to grow just 0.29 percent. The fiscal deficit for the following fiscal year was projected at 6.54 percent of GDP, according to the budget. 

The country faces a series of economy crises, exacerbated by a stall in bailout funding from the IMF, which analysts said was unlikely to be significantly impressed by the budget. 

In addition to requirements related to the currency and budget, Pakistan is required to secure firm and credible financing commitments to close the $6 billion gap in order to unlock funding under its long-delayed ninth IMF review. The government has gotten commitments of only $4 billion, mainly from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. 

Pakistan's Shahroz Sabzwari says new Eid Al-Adha flick alongside ex-wife will give 'butterflies in your tummy'

Updated 1 min 4 sec ago

Pakistan's Shahroz Sabzwari says new Eid Al-Adha flick alongside ex-wife will give 'butterflies in your tummy'

  • Syra Yousuf, Sabzwari say they work hard on maintaining a ‘good equation’ for their child that seeps into other areas of their lives too 
  • ’Babilicious,’ a rom-com by Essa Khan that was shot in Karachi, Nawabshah and Bahrain, is slated to be released in Pakistan for now 

KARACHI: Pakistani actor Shahroz Sabzwari has said his new movie, ‘Babylicious,’ with ex-wife Syra Yousuf will give “butterflies in your tummy,” with the flick scheduled to be released on Eid Al-Adha. 

Babylicious was announced in December last year when Yousuf and Sabzwari revealed the first look of the film, initially slated for a release in February 2023. The news came as a surprise for many, particularly after the real-life couple parted ways in 2020. 

Nonetheless, the former couple this month began promotions for the film, which had been in the works since 2017 when Yousuf and Sabzwari were married to each other. 

In an exclusive interview together with his ex-wife, Sabzwari, who plays the role of a college student Omar, told Arab News the film is “romantically entertaining.” 

The still image taken from a video on June 9, 2023, shows Syra Yusuf (lrft) and Shahroz Sabzwari, during an interview for their upcoming film called Babylicious. (AN Photo)

“Go watch all the films but if you want butterflies in your tummy, watch Babylicious. Like true butterflies in your tummy if you really want to feel happy and sad at the same time. Watch Babylicious,” he said, when asked what the picture will bring to viewers apart from other movies slated for release on Eid. 

“If you want to cry a little and then get excited and jump on your seat then watch Babylicious. Otherwise, you can watch other films also.” 

The movie, shot in Karachi, Nawabshah and Bahrain, is written, directed and co-produced by Essa Khan, who described it as: 

“Fun, date movie set in a super affluent Pakistani neverland where college students drive fancy new cars, have top brand wardrobes and lavish weddings.” 

But Yousuf believes Babylicious portrays romance in an “old school” manner and is very different than what “love means in today’s time.” She stars as Omar’s college sweetheart, Sabiha. 

“It’s funny because we shot this movie over a span of five years,” said Yousuf, who thought the former couple has “really changed” over the years. 

“I’m kind of looking forward to see how that’s going to turn out.” 

Sabzwari said the film is equally relatable to youngsters and their parents. 

“Anyone who has fallen in love in their teens, or early 20s. Maybe, their first love. This film is for them,” he said. 

“It is also for the parents.” 

Babylicious is not the first time Yousuf and Sabzwari have worked together. The former real-life couple appeared in the sequel of cult-classic ‘Tanhaiyaan’ in 2012. 

They mutually opted for divorce due to “irreconcilable” differences three years ago. The two have a daughter, Nooreh, who they co-parent, while Sabzwari later married Pakistani model Sadaf Kanwal. 

The two shared they work hard on maintaining a “good equation” for their child that seeps into other areas of their lives too. 

“Along with being very dedicated actors, we are also very dedicated parents. We both are very big on the responsibility we share,” Yousuf said. 

“It’s mainly the fact that we work really hard on maintaining a good equation for our child. It just kind of leaks into other areas of our lives as well.” 

Asked if they would sign up for another project together, Yousuf said they were good “co-parenting.” 

“It was very smooth [working together in Babylicious] because we have known each other for a very long time,” she shared. “So, we know what works, what doesn’t work.” 

Sabzwari said people were “shocked” when they learnt the two actors were starring in a film. 

“[They should] live and let live but it doesn’t happen, which is okay,” he said. “It was [a surprise] for a lot of people and that’s why they’re going to go watch the film.” 

Babylicious, according to Sabzwari, does not have an international release planned yet, however, if the film does well at the box office, they hope to release it in the US, England and Dubai. 

Day after budget, Pakistan PM says charter of economy ‘only way forward’ to achieve prosperity 

Updated 10 June 2023

Day after budget, Pakistan PM says charter of economy ‘only way forward’ to achieve prosperity 

  • Shehbaz Sharif’s government has struggled with an unprecedented economic downturn since taking over last year 
  • The country is currently facing record inflation, fiscal imbalances and critically low levels of foreign exchange reserves 

ISLAMABAD: Pakistan Prime Minister Shehbaz Sharif said on Saturday that a charter of economy was the “only way forward” for the political leadership to achieve prosperity for the Pakistani people, a day after the cash-strapped government presented budget for the next fiscal year. 

PM Sharif’s government, which succeeded that of former premier Imran Khan, has struggled with an unprecedented economic downturn since taking over last year, with talks with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for the revival of the $6 billion bailout package yielding no result since December. 

The draft budget envisaged $50.4 billion for the next fiscal year, starting July 1, a significant increase from last year’s budget, aiming for a 6.5 percent deficit and allocating approximately 50 percent for interest payments. 

“The economy direly needs reforms, which, in turn, can be undertaken in a stable political environment, for economic development is intrinsically linked to political stability,” Sharif said on Twitter. 

“It is here that the Charter of Economy appears to be the only way forward for our political parties to achieve prosperity for our people.” 

Sharif said the making of Budget 2023-24 was particularly a difficult task in view of the persistent challenges arising out of the floods-related relief and rehabilitation, global supply chain disruptions and geostrategic upheavals. 

“Never-ending headwinds of political instability created by Imran Niazi damaged the economy and created uncertainty, as the country remained on the boil for well over a year,” he added. 

Khan, who was ousted in a parliamentary no-trust vote last year, has since launched a campaign against his political rivals, demanding snap nationwide polls. The ex-premier dissolved two provincial legislatures in an attempt to pressure the central government into announcing countrywide elections. 

The political upheaval has compounded the countries the economic woes, with record inflation, fiscal imbalances and critical levels of reserves that cover barely a month of imports. 

Sharif said a more balanced budget that levied no new tax could not have been possible within the existing constraints. 

“Budget (FY23-24) represents the beginning of the process to fix the economy’s long-term ailments. The coalition government has prioritized the right areas that have the potential to spur economic growth, attract investment and make the economy self-sufficient,” he said. 

“Mindful of the impact of inflation, the government has provided relief to public sector employees and pensioners in the form of pay raise of up to 35 percent and 17.5 percent respectively, and increased minimum wage to Rs. 32000.” 

Pakistan is currently in talks with bilateral creditors to restructure its debt, the cash strapped country’s finance minister said on Friday. 

Pakistan’s IMF program ends this month with about $2.5 billion in funds yet to be released as it struggles to strike an agreement with the lender. 

Bilateral creditors made up $37 billion of Pakistan’s debt in the fiscal year 2021, out of which $23 billion is owed to China, according to an IMF country report released last year. 

“We are in the process of engaging bilateral lenders to restructure debt,” Finance Minister Ishaq Dar said in televised comments after the budget on Friday. 

“No haircuts will be made... Interest will be serviced, and principal payments will be staggered.”