Educators struggle to adapt as Taliban say new policy based on Islamic law

Photo shows a woman looking at secondhand household items for sale at a market in the northwest neighborhood of Khair Khana in Kabul. (AFP)
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Updated 14 September 2021

Educators struggle to adapt as Taliban say new policy based on Islamic law

  • The Taliban announced their all-male interim setup last week after retaking Kabul in a bloodless siege on Aug. 15

KABUL: The Taliban said on Monday their latest order making head coverings mandatory and for classrooms to be gender-segregated was to safeguard women from “unnecessary harassment” and ensure their “mental well-being.”
This came a day after the Taliban introduced its new education policy based on Islamic law.
The move, however, has prompted outrage from rights groups, elicited mixed reactions from women students while educators said they were struggling to adapt.
On Sunday, the interim government’s newly installed Higher Education Minister Abdul Baqi Haqqani told a news conference that women in Afghanistan could continue to study in universities, including at post-graduate levels, provided they adhered to a compulsory Islamic dress code.
“We will not allow coeducation,” he said, adding that hijabs or headscarves were a must as per the new policy.
Taliban spokesman Bilal Karimi reiterated the stance on Monday, saying that the decision was based on the Islamic Emirate’s new policies and “no group could oppose” it.
“Islamic law has commanded that women should wear the hijab and that their classes should be separate,” he told Arab News.
“Educating girls in separate classes will provide mental well-being. From now on, no one can cause them unnecessary harassment,” he said.
The Taliban announced their all-male interim setup last week after retaking Kabul in a bloodless siege on Aug. 15. Since then, the group’s rise to power has stoked fears that their new government will not be different from the first time in power in the late 1990s when girls and women were barred from education and work, among other harsh policies.
After ruling Afghanistan for five years, the Taliban were ousted in a US-led invasion in 2001, ushering in a new era for the war-battered country where women students did not have to abide by a dress code and could study alongside men.
Still, most women students opted to wear hijabs in keeping with their religious and personal choices, while boys and girls were taught separately in elementary and high schools before the Taliban came to power.
Haqqani acknowledged the shift in policy in his address but said that the Taliban did not want to turn the clock back 20 years. “We will start building on what exists today,” he said.
Women students, however, said that the latest directive could threaten their hard-won rights and overshadow freedom.
“Imagine, in the 21st century, instead of thinking about quality education we go back to the ’90s. I think it’s toward the rear. We’re actually wasting 20 years of achievements,” Wahida Jabbari, a law student at Fanoos University in Kabul, told Arab News.
Jabbari’s collegemate Vida Darvaish, a journalism student, implored the Taliban “to make progress instead of repeating our historical mistakes.”
“Making hijab compulsory in the classroom is a clear violation of women’s freedom. It should not be forgotten that today’s generation is not the generation of the 1990s,” she told Arab News.
Other students, however, welcomed the policies introduced by Afghanistan’s new rulers.

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Spokesman says initiative will ensure women’s safety, mental wellbeing, but move draws mixed responses from Afghan students, university officials and rights group.

On Saturday, a group mainly comprised of women students held protests in Kabul to support the rules on dress and separate classrooms.
“Hijab is actually a protector for women. Having a hijab while learning is never a bad thing. It is the decision of the Islamic Emirate to bring true Islam back to Afghanistan,” Aziza Iftekhar, a Sharia law student at Al-Azhar University in Kabul, told Arab News.
She added that separate classes would “help calm minds” and ensure “psychological security.”
“We need peace of mind while studying. Women’s hijab and taking classes in separate classes will bring us psychological security, and our sisters will be safe,” Iftekhar said.
While laying out the new education policy, Haqqani said that the subjects being taught would also be reviewed, with women teachers required for female students “wherever possible.”
Where no women teachers were available, “special measures” would have to be adopted to ensure separation.
Educators, however, lamented the move, saying that the Taliban’s decision to separate classes had led to a “logistical and financial nightmare” because universities did not have the resources to provide separate classes.
“This decision has been a big headache for us because, in some classes, we have only one girl studying, but if we create a separate class for them, we will actually incur additional costs,” Ruhollah Wahab, head of the journalism department at Fanoos University, told Arab News.
He said that the initiative would “pose many challenges” for educational institutes. “Many private universities are not able to hire female professors because it creates organizational inflation and makes it difficult for the university to pay their lecturers.”
Since returning to power, the Taliban has maintained that their attitude, particularly toward women, had shifted in the past two decades.
Still, in recent days, the group’s officials have sent out mixed signals, while several members have used violence against women protesters demanding equal rights at small-scale demonstrations in the country.
While the Taliban have not officially ruled out women’s participation in their government, in a recent interview with popular TV channel TOLO News, Taliban spokesman Syed Zekrullah Hashmi said that “it’s not necessary that women be in the cabinet,” and should, instead, “give birth and raise children.”
Afghanistan had made massive progress in improving its literacy rates, particularly for girls and women, in the 17 years after Taliban control.
According to a recent report by the United Nation’s education branch, UNESCO, the number of girls in primary school had increased from “almost zero to 2.5 million” during that period, while the female literacy rate had nearly doubled in a decade to 30 percent.
Human rights groups, however, said that the Taliban’s latest policies “will make it much harder for women to study.”
“It will push many women out of higher education, and will reduce the quality of education for both women and men,” Heather Bar, associate director of women’s rights at Human Rights Watch, told Arab News.
“These restrictions violate the obligation any Afghan government has to ensure gender equality under the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, which Afghanistan ratified in 2003, and the world is taking note of that,” she said.


Afghan migrants continue to face abuse from Iranian border guards, traffickers

Updated 14 sec ago

Afghan migrants continue to face abuse from Iranian border guards, traffickers

  • Hundreds of Afghans are trying to cross the Iranian border every day
  • Allegations of mistreatment in Iran have been on the rise since last year

KABUL: When Mohammad Parwiz was trying to cross from Iran to Turkey in search of a better life, he was caught by Iranian police guards and subjected to forced labor before being deported back to Afghanistan.

Parwiz is just one among hundreds of Afghans trying to cross the Iranian border every day to find employment abroad. He is also one of an increasing number to face abuse in the process.
Iran has for decades hosted millions of Afghans fleeing armed conflict in their war-torn country. The number jumped to 5 million from nearly 4 million last year, according to Iranian Foreign Ministry data, as economic restrictions imposed on Afghanistan since the Taliban takeover in August 2021 triggered unprecedented levels of poverty.
“As embassies closed in August last year, I had no other way but to go to Iran illegally,” Parwiz, a 22-year-old from the northern Baghlan province, told Arab News.
“I stayed in Iran for three months working at my relative’s bakery. My friends and I were caught by a border police patrol close to Turkey’s border.
“We were kept in jail for 12 days where we were forced to do hard labor and if we didn’t, they would hit us. We wouldn’t get proper food during that time. They constantly threatened us that if we come to Iran again, we may get killed. After 12 days of forced labor, humiliation, abuse and torture by Iran’s police, we were sent back to Afghanistan.”
Allegations of mistreatment of Afghans in Iran have been on the rise since last year. Reports include abuse not only by the Iranian police, but also human traffickers.
Ahmad Jalil, a 19-year-old from Laghman province, tried to leave Afghanistan and go via Iran to Turkey, from where he wanted to reach Europe with a group of 15 other teenagers.
“We paid a lot of money to the trafficker here but when we entered Iran through the border in Nimroz province during the night, we were received by another person after walking in the desert for hours,” he said.
The second smuggler asked them for more money.
“The trafficker would abuse us and would beat some of us,” Jalil said. “He even threatened us with death.”
Eventually, Jalil was abandoned and managed to return to Afghanistan on his own.
“We have cases of Afghan migrants being abused, beaten up and even killed,” Sayed Hazratullah Zaeem, a commissioner at Islam Qala, a border town in Herat province, near the Afghanistan–Iran border, told the Afghan media on Thursday.
Abdullah Qayoum, an official of the Department of Refugees and Repatriation in Herat, confirmed the reports of abuse.
“Afghans who want to go there (Iran), some of them are sent back after being tortured,” he said.
In April, videos circulated on social media showing civilians being manhandled by men dressed like Iranian security forces sparked a wave of demonstrations targeting Iranian diplomatic missions in Kabul and Herat, and a diplomatic protest by Afghanistan’s Taliban authorities.
“The border police in Iran are so brutal. For them we are not even humans,” said Mohammad Karim, a recent graduate from Kabul, who tried to cross from Iran to Turkey earlier this year.
He did not manage to reach his destination after he was injured in a car accident as his traffickers tried to evade Iranian police.
“If they saw our vehicle in the desert, they would shoot at us,” he said.


Ukrainian minister says Russia blocking access to medicines

Updated 13 August 2022

Ukrainian minister says Russia blocking access to medicines

  • Ukrainian Health Minister Viktor Liashko said Russian authorities repeatedly have blocked efforts to provide state-subsidized drugs to people in occupied cities, towns and villages

KYIV: Ukraine’s health minister has accused Russian authorities of committing a crime against humanity by blocking access to affordable medicines in areas its forces have occupied since invading the country 5 1/2 months ago.
In an interview with The Associated Press, Ukrainian Health Minister Viktor Liashko said Russian authorities repeatedly have blocked efforts to provide state-subsidized drugs to people in occupied cities, towns and villages.
“Throughout the entire six months of war, Russia has not (allowed) proper humanitarian corridors so we could provide our own medicines to the patients that need them,” Liashko said, speaking at the Health Ministry in Kyiv late Friday.
“We believe that these actions are being taken with intent by Russia, and we consider them to be crimes against humanity and war crimes that will be documented and will be recognized,” the minister said.
The Ukrainian government has a program that provides medications to people with cancer and chronic health conditions. The destruction of hospitals and infrastructure along with the displacement of an estimated 7 million people inside the country also have interfered with other forms of treatment, according to United Nations and Ukrainian officials.
The war in Ukraine has caused severe disruptions to the country’s state-run health service, which was undergoing major reforms, largely in response to the coronavirus pandemic, when Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered his troops to invade on Feb. 24.
The World Health Organization said it recorded 445 attacks on hospitals and other health care facilities as of Aug. 11 that directly resulted in 86 deaths and 105 injuries.
But Liashko said the secondary effects were far more severe.
“When roads and bridges have been damaged in areas now controlled by the Ukrainian forces... it is difficult to get someone who had a heart attack or a stroke to the hospital,” he said. “Sometimes, we can’t make it in time, the ambulance can’t get there in time. That’s why war causes many more casualties (than those killed in the fighting). It’s a number that cannot be calculated.”


Two more ships depart from Ukraine — Turkey’s defense ministry

Updated 13 August 2022

Two more ships depart from Ukraine — Turkey’s defense ministry

ANKARA: Two more ships left from Ukraine’s Black Sea ports on Saturday, Turkey’s defense ministry said, bringing the total number of ships to depart the country under a UN-brokered deal to 16.
Barbados-flagged Fulmar S left Ukraine’s Chornomorsk port, carrying 12,000 tons of corn to Turkey’s southern Iskenderun province, it said. The Marshall Island-flagged Thoe departed from the same port and headed to Turkey’s Tekirdag, carrying 3,000 tons of sunflower seeds.
The statement added that another ship would depart from Turkey on Saturday to Ukraine to buy grains.

Taliban violently disperse rare women’s protest in Kabul

Updated 13 August 2022

Taliban violently disperse rare women’s protest in Kabul

  • Some women protesters who took refuge in nearby shops were chased and beaten by Taliban fighters with their rifle butts

KABUL: Taliban fighters beat women protesters and fired into the air on Saturday as they violently dispersed a rare rally in the Afghan capital, days ahead of the first anniversary of the hard-line Islamists’ return to power.
Since seizing power on August 15 last year, the Taliban have rolled back the marginal gains made by women during the two decades of US intervention in Afghanistan.
About 40 women — chanting “Bread, work and freedom” — marched in front of the education ministry building in Kabul, before the fighters dispersed them by firing their guns into the air, an AFP correspondent reported.
Some women protesters who took refuge in nearby shops were chased and beaten by Taliban fighters with their rifle butts.
The protesters carried a banner which read “August 15 is a black day” as they demanded rights to work and political participation.
“Justice, justice. We’re fed up with ignorance,” chanted the protesters, many of them not wearing face veils, before they dispersed.
Some journalists covering the protest — the first women’s rally in months — were also beaten by the Taliban fighters.
After seizing power, the Taliban had promised a softer version of the harsh Islamist rule that characterised their first stint in power from 1996 to 2001.
But many restrictions have already been imposed.
Tens of thousands of girls have been shut out of secondary schools, while women have been barred from returning to many government jobs.
Women have also been banned from traveling alone on long trips, and can only visit public gardens and parks in the capital on days separate from men.
In May, the country’s supreme leader and chief of the Taliban, Hibatullah Azkhundzada, even ordered women to fully cover themselves in public, including their faces — ideally with an all-encompassing burqa.
Some Afghan women initially pushed back against the curbs, holding small protests.
But the Taliban soon rounded up the ringleaders, holding them incommunicado while denying they had been detained.


‘Dead fish everywhere’ in Germany, Poland, after feared chemical waste dump

Updated 13 August 2022

‘Dead fish everywhere’ in Germany, Poland, after feared chemical waste dump

  • In Poland, the government has come under heavy criticism for failing to take swift action
  • Officials believe that the fish are likely to have been poisoned

SCHWEDT, Germany: Thousands of fish have washed up dead on the Oder river running through Germany and Poland, sparking warnings of an environmental disaster as residents are urged to stay away from the water.
The fish floating by the German banks near the eastern town of Schwedt are believed to have washed upstream from Poland where first reports of mass fish deaths were made by locals and anglers as early as on July 28.
German officials accused Polish authorities of failing to inform them about the deaths, and were taken by surprise when the wave of lifeless fish came floating into view.
In Poland, the government has also come under heavy criticism for failing to take swift action.
Almost two weeks after the first dead fish appeared floating by Polish villages, Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki said on Friday that “everyone had initially thought that it was a local problem.”
But he admitted that the “scale of the disaster is very large, sufficiently large to say that the Oder will need years to recover its natural state.”
“Probably enormous quantities of chemical waste was dumped into the river in full knowledge of the risk and consequences,” added the Polish leader, as German Environment Minister Steffi Lemke urged a comprehensive probe into what she called a brewing “environmental disaster.”
Standing by the riverbank, Michael Tautenhahn, deputy chief of Germany’s Lower Oder Valley National Park, looked in dismay at the river on the German-Polish border.
“We are standing on the German side — we have dead fish everywhere,” he told AFP.
“I am deeply shocked... I have the feeling that I’m seeing decades of work lying in ruins here. I see our livelihood, the water — that’s our life,” he said, noting that it’s not just fish that have died, but also mussels and likely countless other water creatures.
“It’s just the tip of the iceberg.”
The Oder has over the last years been known as a relatively clean river, and 40 domestic species of fish make their home in the waterway.
But now, lifeless fish — some as small as a few centimeters, others reaching 30-40 cm — can be seen across the river. Occasionally, those still struggling to pull through can be seen flipping up in the water, seemingly gasping for air.
Officials believe that the fish are likely to have been poisoned.
“This fish death is atypical,” said Axel Vogel, environment minister for Brandenburg state, estimating that “undoubtedly tons” of fish have died.
Fish death is often caused by the distortion of oxygen levels when water levels are too low, he explained.
“But we have completely different test results, namely that we have had increased oxygen level in the river for several days, and that indicates that a foreign substance has been introduced that has led to this,” he said.
Tests are ongoing in Germany to establish the substance that may have led to the deaths, but there are early indications of extremely high levels of mercury — although authorities said final results are still pending.
In Poland, prosecutors have also begun investigating after authorities came under fire over what critics said was a sluggish response to a disaster.
Tautenhahn said the disaster would likely carry consequences for years to come.
“If it is quicksilver, then it will also stay here for a long time,” he said, noting that mercury does not disintegrate but would then remain in the sediments.