US wins WTO ruling against China grain import quotas

A sign of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is seen at their headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. (AFP file photo)
Updated 19 April 2019
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US wins WTO ruling against China grain import quotas

GENEVA: The United States won a World Trade Organization (WTO) ruling on Thursday against China’s use of tariff-rate quotas for rice, wheat and corn, which it successfully argued limited market access for US grain exports.
The case, lodged by the Obama administration in late 2016, marked the second US victory in as many months. It came amid US-China trade talks and on the heels of Washington clinching a WTO ruling on China’s price support for grains in March.
A WTO dispute panel ruled on Thursday that under the terms of its 2001 WTO accession, China’s administration of the tariff rate quotas (TRQs) as a whole violated its obligation to administer them on a “transparent, predictable and fair basis.”
TRQs are two-level tariffs, with a limited volume of imports allowed at the lower ‘in-quota’ tariff and subsequent imports charged an “out-of-quota” tariff, which is usually much higher.
The administration of state trading enterprises and non-state enterprises’ portions of TRQs are inconsistent with WTO rules, the panel said.
Australia, Brazil, India, and the European Union were among those reserving their rights in the dispute brought by the world’s largest grain exporter.
In a statement, US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue welcomed the decision, saying China’s system “ultimately inhibits TRQs from filling, denying US farmers access to China’s market for grain.”
If China’s TRQs had been fully used, $3.5 billion worth of corn, wheat and rice would have been imported in 2015 alone, it said, citing US Department of Agriculture estimates.
The two WTO rulings would help American farmers “compete on a more level playing field,” the USTR statement said, adding: “The (Trump) Administration will continue to press China to promptly come into compliance with its WTO obligations.”
The latest WTO panel said that the United States had not proven all of its case, failing to show that China had violated its public notice obligation under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in respect to TRQs.
China’s Ministry of Commerce said in a statement on Friday it “regrets” the panel’s decision and that it would “earnestly evaluate” the panel’s report.
China would “handle the matter appropriately in accordance with WTO dispute resolution procedures, actively safeguard the stability of the multilateral trading system and continue to administer the relevant agricultural import tariff quotas in compliance with WTO rules,” it said.
Either side can appeal the ruling within 60 days.


After one year in office, Pakistan's economy remains government’s biggest challenge

Updated 20 August 2019
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After one year in office, Pakistan's economy remains government’s biggest challenge

  • Pakistan’s stocks declined by 32 percent and its currency lost its value by 29 percent in a year
  • Economist say Pakistan has got major support from the Arab world due to its new political leadership

KARACHI: Pakistan’s ongoing economic turmoil has overshadowed the ruling Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI) party’s first anniversary celebrations, as analysts and traders point out that the country’s stock market has witnessed a decline of 32 percent, the national currency has lost its value by 29 percent and the bullion market price has escalated by 60 percent within the last one year.
Prime Minister Imran Khan assumed the country’s top political office on August 18, 2018, promising wide-ranging reforms and economic turnaround. However, his administration found itself struggling against tough economic challenges that included mounting current account and fiscal deficits.
The situation triggered tremendous uncertainty in the stock exchange, making it one of the worst performing markets in Asia. The bench mark KSE 100 index declined from 42,446 points on August 17, 2018, to 28,764 points on August 16, 2019, recording a staggering decline of 32 percent.
“The situation of the market became worse as it remained in the grip of negative sentiments in the backdrop of economic conditions fueled by current account deficit, interest rate hike, and currency devaluations,” Muhammad Faizan Munshey, head of foreign institutional sales at Next Capital, told Arab News.
The stock market on Monday rebounded and gained 798 points to close at 29,562. “The worst condition is almost over and the market is expected to rebound in the future as well,” he added.
Analyst believe that the country’s bourse has bottomed out and the prices are expected to rebound, provided that the growth drivers remain in place. “The government must focus on growth drivers, such as exports, job creation and tax collections, for economic recovery,” Samiullah Tariq, director research at Arif Habib Limited, told Arab News.
During the PTI’s first year in office, the country devalued its currency by almost 29 percent from Rs123.50 against a dollar to Rs159.10 in the interbank market.
Analyst believe the rupee devaluation was done to fulfil the conditions of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) before Islamabad could avail $6 billion bailout package. “There were two reasons cited for the rupee devaluation: the first was the IMF’s free-float requirement and the second was that the Pakistani rupee was overvalued and needed stabilization,” Zafar Paracha, general secretary of Exchange Companies Association of Pakistan, told Arab News.
Pakistan’s central bank governor in June this year tried to dispel the impression that the state bank was reluctant to intervene in the currency market due to the IMF conditions, saying that the country had “adopted a market-based exchange rate system.”
According to Paracha, however, the policy shift took place after the Pak rupee hit a high of 165 against the dollar, saying “it was only then that they [the State Bank and the IMF] realized that free float was not suitable for our market and decided to adopt the market-based exchange rate mechanism instead.”
He added that the lull in the currency market was due to Eid al-Adha related foreign currency inflows. “I don’t see any steps taken to stabilize the economy. Pakistan’s economy does not need ad hoc measures. The change of finance ministers also resulted in a complete shift in policies earlier this year. What the country requires at the moment, however, are carefully crafted stabilization policies that are kept in place for five to ten years.”
Much like the stock and currency markets, the bullion market also experienced volatility as the rate of gold hit Rs89,000 per tola – or approximately 12 grams – on Saturday before cooling down to Rs88,000 on Monday. This rate stood at Rs54,750 a year earlier.
Bullion traders expect the volatility to continue in the market, saying that there has also been a decline in the purchasing power of consumers. “We expect that gold would hit Rs100,000 in the foreseeable future,” Haji Haroon Rasheed Chand, president of All Sindh Saraf Jewelers Association, told Arab News.
Under the circumstances, senior economist say that the country will have to take tough measures with harsh economic and political implications. “Last year, around one million people lost their jobs, poverty increased because the prices of goods jacked up and the growth rate of our economy slowed down,” Dr Hafeez Pasha, former finance minister, told Arab News, adding that “hard times are going to end.”
“Due to our new leader, we have got major support from the Arab world,” he said. “The good thing is that our Arab friends supported the country when it was in dire need and we must thank them for what they have done for us.”
“We received $3 billion from Saudi Arabia and they also extended us the deferred oil payment facility that began in July this year. The United Arab Emirates also deposited $2 billion and Qatar extended $500 million as well,” he added.