Boeing executive sees sustainable aviation fuel as ‘key to airline industry’s decarbonization’

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Updated 13 November 2022

Boeing executive sees sustainable aviation fuel as ‘key to airline industry’s decarbonization’

  • Sustainability Policy region lead Robert Boyd tells “Frankly Speaking” the industry is committed to decarbonization over next 30 years
  • He calls for investment in sustainable fuel, replacement of old fleets, and operational and traffic-management improvements

DUBAI: The aviation industry is committed to decarbonizing, but with air travel set to triple by 2050, alternative energies such as electric and hydrogen will not solve the challenge; airlines must replace old fleets, airports should improve air traffic management structures and industry must invest in sustainable aviation fuel.

However, there is a “huge amount of work” needed to drive down SAF prices, including more research and development, and technological development on feedstock. Also, SAF must be available to developing countries to make an impact beyond the largest aviation hubs. This is according to Robert Boyd, an expert in SAF and the regional lead of aircraft manufacturer Boeing’s global sustainability policy and partnerships.

Appearing on “Frankly Speaking,” the Arab News weekly current-affairs talkshow that dives deep into regional headlines and speaks with leading policy makers and business leaders, he said: “The good news is that there are several pillars of action that the aviation industry has at its disposal, and these are working to essentially execute the decarbonization challenge over the next 28 years.”




Boeing executive Robert Boyd being interviewed by Katie Jensen on Frankly Speaking.

But given that “technology limitations do not allow for hydrogen or electric to power wide-body, long-haul aircraft, SAF is the key.”

With climate change taking center stage at the UN Climate Change Conference in Egypt, many people are wondering whether the aviation industry — currently responsible for 2.5 percent of global emissions — can really go green, or if real progress is still decades away.

“In a decarbonizing world, if all sectors are not doing it at the same pace, then the relative scale of emissions for aviation or shipping makes it hard to decarbonize,” he said. “So, it is absolutely critical to decarbonize. There is a clear plan to achieve net zero by 2050. And that can be done through various pillars.

“The obvious one is new aircraft. A new aircraft can be anywhere from 20 to 25 percent more fuel efficient than its predecessor.”

Boyd called them “significant numbers,” pointing out that something like 25 tons of carbon dioxide can be saved per day saved by using the best-in-class modern fleet. “That can be a couple of hundred thousand tons of CO2 over its lifetime. So, we need to ensure that we are using the most efficient modern fleet, which might get 15 to 25 percent CO2 dividend globally. It is not small.”




An Airbus A350-900 is refueled with sustainable aviation fuel produced by French energy group Total at France's Roissy airport on May 18, 2021. (AFP file)

He cited operational efficiencies as another opportunity for improvement. “Aviation has been on this for several years or even decades. A lot of the easy operational improvements are already there. They’re embedded in the technology that we use today,” he said.

Improvements in air traffic management offer yet another opportunity, but these solutions have limitations, according to Boyd, will not fix the aviation emissions problem. “The major one is replacing the energy source with something sustainable. That’s where we put significant emphasis on sustainable aviation fuel as it is doing to do the heavy lifting on decarbonization till 2050.”

What about ideas of electric or hydrogen as a potential replacement for kerosene? “These are really exciting, and there has to be continued work on this, but they won’t, by themselves, solve the decarbonization challenge,” Boyd told “Frankly Speaking” host Katie Jensen.

“Today about three quarters of all of the international emissions are from wide-body long-haul travel, and technological limitations don’t allow for hydrogen or electric in that space just yet. Maybe it may be in due course, but today it’s not a viable solution. So, SAF is the key over the next 30 years.”

The problem with SAF is of course the price: More than double the price of regular jet fuel, plus it is in short supply. Figures from 2019 show that SAF accounted for just 0.1 percent of global fuel use for jets, while the 2025 target was to have 2 percent of global jet fuel come from SAF.




Surging jet fuel prices have hampered airline efforts to rebound from two years of the COVID-19 pandemic. The cost of sustainable aviation fuel is currently double that of regular jet fuel.  (AFP)

Under the circumstances, should governments step in and subsidize, or will travelers be forced to pay with higher airfares?

“We do talk in a very positive way about sustainable aviation fuel and the potential. But that realism around where we are at today is really important because it shows what degree of challenge lies ahead,” said Boyd. “What is going to be needed is exponential growth. We are on track for around somewhere between 4 and 6 billion liters of SAF by 2025. But it still leaves a huge mountain to climb in terms of scaling up.”

Having said that, Boyd acknowledged there are big barriers to scaling up faster. “Definitely cost. If SAF was at cost-cost parity today and it was available, every airline would use it. We need to benefit from the efficiencies of getting scaled. That is really just starting. There is a huge amount of work, sort of research and development and technology, pure technology work on feedstock, which can bring some of these prices down,” he said.

He cited the US as a good example where the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 “provides a huge incentive to develop green hydrogen and renewable fuels for (uses in) both ground and in air especially. There is a wave of supply coming along. And with that, I expect we will see price improvements.”




A Hop (Air-France low cost company) plane is refueled at Roissy-Charles de Gaulle Airport, north of Paris, on August 6, 2018. (AFP file) 

Boyd said he is optimistic about SAF supplies too. “There is expansion of existing facilities and new facilities are being developed. Some of these are starting to come online now, 2022,” he said. “There will be more in 2023 going right through to 2025 and beyond. We have visibility, with some respectable granularity, out to about 2027.”

There is talk about hydrogen-powered planes, but hydrogen requires a large volume to store it which would require a complete redesign of a plane. What does Boyd think of the potential of the zero-emission fuel?

“Certainly, there is a lot of work going on with hydrogen. There is still a lot of learning to do there. It is accurate to say we can do it,” he said. “But what if you have a drastically different-looking plane? Moreover, trying to totally redesign airports could change the whole efficiency of aviation in terms of restrictions for how you refuel a hydrogen plane. There are trillions of dollars of fuel infrastructure already, either in the ground or pipelines going to airports.”

He described these as “really complex questions” that need answers before you can have a sort of a sensible discussion on whether hydrogen is actually realistic as a solution for aviation in a 2050-2100 timeframe. This is “certainly not to say that there should not be continued work going on there, but it really will not be the silver bullet.”

Does Boyd think the carbon reductions that are being talked about COP27 and other big events will change the future of airports such as Saudi Arabia’s NEOM Airport? “If you are building a brand new airport, (you have to) think 10 or 15 years into the future. What is likely to be feasible, plausible or actually implemented, things like, should you have hydrogen supply built into the airport? It is much easier to do this when you are building the airport than to do a patched-up effort.”

Boyd does not rule out the idea of retrofitting carriers, something in which Ryanair has invested about $200 million. He cited the example of the eco demonstrator, a program by which Boeing buys back an existing aircraft from an operator. “We set it up as an experimental lab, putting all sorts of technology on board to test anything and everything. There have been about 300 different technologies tested on the eco-demonstrator over the past decade. Many of these you now see being introduced into planes today.”

He also talked about how Boeing is trying to make planes lighter and more fuel efficient, and whether these will change travelers’ experience. “People may not appreciate the amount of carbon fiber that in a Boeing in a Dreamliner or a 787. But that is tremendous in terms of weight,” he said. “It is incredibly strong and incredibly light, allows the appropriate amount of flex, which can give better aerodynamic properties from the wings.”

As of now, most of the aviation emissions are coming from developed nations, but the future of growth is expected be in developing countries. Will they have the deep pockets of nations like the US and Europe to fund emission reductions? “This comes to the crux of why decarbonization is critical,” Boyd said. “You need to decouple carbon dioxide from aviation itself.

“If we just focus on a couple of (advanced industrial) countries and think the job is done, then it is not at all. The same momentum needs to translate to China, India, parts of Asia, all of Asia. There are some fast-growing areas like Indonesia, Bangladesh, South America and Africa. (It is important) to make sure no country is left behind.”

 


IMF mission due in Pakistan tonight to discuss resumption of stalled loan program

Updated 30 January 2023

IMF mission due in Pakistan tonight to discuss resumption of stalled loan program

  • A successful IMF visit is critical for Pakistan, which is facing an increasingly acute balance of payments crisis
  • Pakistan is desperate for external financing, with only enough forex reserves to cover three weeks of impotts

ISLAMABAD: An International Monetary Fund (IMF) mission will land in Pakistan tonight, Monday, to discuss a stalled ninth review of the country's current funding program, Pakistani media widely reported.

A successful IMF visit is critical for Pakistan, which is facing an increasingly acute balance of payments crisis and is desperate to secure external financing, with less than three weeks' worth of import cover in its foreign exchange reserves.

“The [IMF] delegation will stay in Pakistan for 10 days,” Samaa Digital, a leading Pakistani news portal, reported. “During the visit, the delegation will be briefed about the country’s economic performance during the second half of 2022 … The situation arising from $30 billion losses incurred by the recent floods will also be conveyed to IMF.”

The government will also brief the IMF delegation on actions it has taken to improve tax revenue and exchange rate conditions, as well as reforms in the energy sector and steps taken to squeeze the current account deficit.

Last week, Pakistan's ministry of finance announced petrol and diesel prices would rise by 35 rupees ($0.1400) a litre. Last week, the Pakistani rupee lost close to 12% of its value after the removal of price caps that were imposed by the government but which were opposed by the IMF.
 


Oil climbs after drone attack in Iran, China’s pledge to promote consumption

Updated 30 January 2023

Oil climbs after drone attack in Iran, China’s pledge to promote consumption

  • Israel suspected to be behind a Saturday night drone attack on a military factory in Iran
  • China resumes business this week after its Lunar New Year holidays

SINGAPORE: Oil prices climbed in early Asia trade on Monday, supported by tensions in the Middle East following a drone attack in Iran and as Beijing pledged over the weekend to promote a consumption recovery which would support fuel demand.
Brent crude futures rose 54 cents, or 0.6 percent, to $87.20 a barrel by 0115 GMT while US West Texas Intermediate crude was at $80.22 a barrel, up 54 cents, or 0.7 percent.
Israel appears to have been behind an overnight drone attack on a military factory in Iran, a US official said on Sunday.
“It is not really clear yet what’s happening in Iran, but any escalation there has the potential to disrupt crude flow,” said Stefano Grasso, a senior portfolio manager at 8VantEdge in Singapore.
Ministers from the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and allies led by Russia, known collectively as OPEC+, are unlikely to tweak its current oil output policy when they meet virtually on Feb. 1.
Still, indication of a rise in crude exports from Russia’s Baltic ports in early February caused Brent and WTI to post their first weekly loss in three last week.
On Saturday, China’s cabinet said it would promote a consumption recovery as the major driver of the economy and boost imports, state broadcaster CCTV reported.
“We have Russia on the supply side and China on the demand side. Both can swing by more than 1 million barrels per day above or below expectation,” said Grasso, formerly an oil trader with Italy’s Eni.
“China seems to have surprised the market in terms of how fast they are coming out of zero COVID while Russia has surprised in terms of resilience of export volume despite the sanctions.”
China resumes business this week after its Lunar New Year holidays. The number of passengers traveling prior to the holidays rose above levels in the past two years but is still below 2019, Citi analysts said in a note, citing data from the Ministry of Transport.
“Overall international traffic recovery remains gradual, with high-single to low-teens digits to 2019 level, and we expect further recovery when outbound tour group travel resumes on Feb. 6,” the Citi note said.

 

 


China’s 2022 smartphone sales fall 13%, says report

Updated 30 January 2023

China’s 2022 smartphone sales fall 13%, says report

  • Android handset maker Vivo was the top-selling brand over the year, with a market share of 18.6 percent

SHANGHAI: China’s smartphone sales fell 13 percent year-on-year in 2022, the largest plunge for the sector in a decade as consumers spent cautiously, market research firm IDC said on Sunday.

The total number of devices shipped was 286 million. That meant total 2022 sales volume was the lowest since 2013 and the first time since then that annual sales have dropped below 300 million, IDC said in a report.

Android handset maker Vivo was the top-selling brand over the year, with a market share of 18.6 percent. Its total shipments fell 25.1 percent year-on-year, however.

Honor ranked as the second best-selling brand, with shipments growing more than 34 percent, albeit from a low base.

Apple Inc. was the third best-selling phone brand in 2022, tied with Oppo.

Apple’s overall sales fell 4.4 percent year-on-year, broadly outperforming the market downturn.

In Q4, despite being the top-selling brand in the three-month period, year-on-year sales for iPhones were still down, as supply chain issues caused by worker unrest at manufacturer Foxconn’s plant in the city of Zhengzhou compounded worse-than expected demand, researchers wrote. Strict COVID-19 controls in China, which ramped up in the spring of 2022 across several cities, weighed heavily on its economy which slumped to one of its worst levels in nearly half-a-century last year.

The plunge in smartphone sales in China reflected the sector’s performance globally. In 2022, global smartphone shipments hit 1.2 billion, the lowest since 2013 and a year-on-year fall of more than 11 percent, according to IDC.

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GCC can be a ‘latter-day Venice,’ says former UK government adviser

Updated 30 January 2023

GCC can be a ‘latter-day Venice,’ says former UK government adviser

  • European trade policy expert Paul McGrade explains why now is the time for a GCC-UK free trade agreement
  • Domestic politics rules out UK-US FTA while India wrestles with divisions over protectionism and politics, he asserts
  • McGrade says British public feel Brexit was a mistake, bringing costs and “very, very few benefits”

DUBAI: The GCC bloc, with its strategic location and fast-growing economies, can be a latter-day Venice, balancing between East and West, according to Paul McGrade, a former UK government adviser and an expert on UK and European trade policy, who was speaking as the GCC and the UK prepare to launch the third round of their free trade talks.

He predicts that the UK’s attempts to forge free-trade agreements with the US and India will meet with failure, in contrast with an FTA deal with the GCC, which could work despite the two sides’ policy differences over China and Russia.

He also asserts, citing opinion surveys, that the British public now feel that “Brexit was a mistake and has brought costs and very, very few benefits.”

McGrade made the comments during an appearance on “Frankly Speaking,” the Arab News current affairs talk show that dives deep into regional headlines by speaking with leading policymakers and business leaders.

He discussed what a GCC-UK trade deal would entail, whether an agreement could materialize before the end of this year and, given the political upheaval of the last 12 months, whether GCC leaders could really trust the British government’s trade promises.

 

 

“The GCC region will still have strong links with China. Energy needs there are huge and growing. (But I hope) the region will continue to have strong links with the West,” he said.

“There’s a difficult balancing act that’s going to get harder in the decades ahead. But the region is very strongly placed and, you (can) already see with the UK, and Europe more broadly, a stronger recognition that this is a strategic partnership, or a set of strategic partnerships, that they can’t afford to ignore.”

Last month, the UK government said it was committed to signing a significant trade deal with the GCC. However, given the political roller-coaster ride that the UK went on in 2022 and the fact that it is no longer the manufacturing giant of the last century, many wonder why GCC countries should still be interested and whether they can trust that the UK will deliver.

“It’s a fair question after six years really of instability in the UK, a country that always prided itself and partly sold itself on its political stability and its business-friendly regulation. It has been a bit of a roller-coaster, but I think that the high tide of Brexit disruption has passed,” McGrade said.

 

 

He said although the Tory government and the main opposition Labour Party claim they are committed to making Brexit work, what they really mean is sound public finances, a more stable regulatory relationship with Europe, a more predictable one where essentially the UK will broadly follow what the EU is doing in big areas like net-zero.

“This gives investors some confidence,” he told Katie Jensen, the host of “Frankly Speaking.”

“The UK is not going to be towing itself off into mid-Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean. It’s going to be geographically, obviously and in regulatory terms, very firmly anchored in the European neighborhood. That gives a bit of confidence and a bit of stability going forward. And the UK needs investment, which has dropped off sharply since the 2016 vote.”

Paul McGrade, a former UK government adviser and an expert on UK and European trade policy, on Frankly Speaking, hosted by Katie Jensen. (AN photo)

As the West decouples from China, experts say it will need strong relationships with the Gulf states. McGrade believes the war in Ukraine has refocused minds on the importance of the strategic partnership with the Gulf countries. “Not just through the trade deal, which could help in some areas, but it’s a broader picture,” he said.

“There’s a huge opportunity here for Gulf states and their investors to kind of reshape this relationship in the sectors that they might want to draw into their own economies in terms of building sustainable, high-skilled models for the future.”

The Conservative government in the post-Brexit era had promised that Britain would be able to make trade deals all over the world. However, they missed their targets last year. The UK has only signed trade agreements with about 60 percent of their global trade partners and talks with the US and India have stalled.

“Some of those (trade) talks have stalled, but some of them probably weren’t very realistic anyway,” McGrade said. “The domestic politics on both sides of the Atlantic probably ruled out the kind of deep trade deal with the US that some Brexiteers said they wanted.”

As for India, he said the country does not “really have a modern ambitious free trade deal with (any entity). It is an economy that is wrestling with its own internal divisions over degrees of protecting its domestic industry. And there are politics at play on things like visas.”

He continued: “It’s a different picture when you look at the Arab world and especially the GCC, because there’s a very strong historic relationship. There are obviously difficult issues in any trade deal about market access, but the relationship is probably more positive and the politics less difficult around the content of that trade deal.”

 

 

Elaborating on the potential for cross-border investments, McGrade said: “A lot of the UK’s economic sectors are in a weak position. (But) some of the fundamentals are pretty strong in areas like health tech, digital health. We have got Arab Health Week, of course, and creative industries, net-zero technology, the traditional strengths and areas like banking, other professional services.

“These are sectors that matter to Gulf economies and may matter increasingly, as we look to kind of building a sustainable net-, post-net-zero economy. So, there’s a lot on offer in the UK and probably some of it is underpriced because of the economic hit that the country has taken over the last few years. This probably is a very good time to invest, whether or not we have a trade deal quickly. But this trade deal potentially is an easier one to do than, say, US or India in political terms.”

The Gulf states are strong strategically but the relationship with the UK will need to be two-way, experts say, with British innovation holding the promise of helping the former to become high-skilled, high-tech economies.

McGrade, for one, is confident that as the UK seeks to diversify its trade and investment relationships, the Gulf states would be important in providing access to new markets, energy sources and other areas.

“(They are) going to be vital, (when) you see a Europe cutting itself off from traditional Russian supplies of oil and gas, and is also recalibrating the relationship with China,” he said. “The US talks openly about decoupling from Chinese supply chains. The UK talks a similar kind of language. The UK is probably a bit closer to the US than some of the big European powers on this.

Paul McGrade, a former UK government adviser and an expert on UK and European trade policy, on Frankly Speaking, hosted by Katie Jensen.

“If that’s the kind of world that we’re going to, then the Gulf states become more important than ever, not just for energy, but for the markets that they represent, the investment and the partnerships that they’re looking to build.”

“Look at the scale of the ambition in the Gulf, not just for sort of investment for return, but for the huge long-term sustainability project that (Gulf) governments, sovereign wealth funds and other investors are aiming for. There’s a huge opportunity for genuine partnerships where some of those innovative technologies that the UK still excels at could be a part of building up that sustainable skills base in Gulf economies.”

The UK estimates that an FTA with the GCC would add about £1.6 billion ($1.98 billion) to its economy. So, where does McGrade see the most gains for countries such as Saudi Arabia and the UAE?

“A trade deal is nice to have, but it’s not essential. These are already quite open economies in global terms. They already have strong trading relationships with the UK. A trade deal could help reduce some of the barriers, but it’s not the biggest game in town,” he said.

“The broader picture is looking at the sectors where UK innovation in particular can help achieve the long-term strategic aims of countries like Saudi Arabia and the UAE. If you look at some of the real strengths, in medical technology, health technology, digital health, we have a lot of innovation in the UK market, which is often underpinned by the fact that you have this almost unique data set because you have a huge national health service covering sort of 60 million people.”

McGrade believes the creative sector is another big source of the UK’s global strength, which can be important for areas like tourism and culture, in which some Gulf states have made a big investment. “There are areas like education that are traditional strengths and where there’s already a presence in the region from the UK,” he said.

“The professional services, banking and financial services is an obvious one. But we increasingly see legal and accounting services as well as sort of management consultancy establishing and growing their presences in the region.”

He next turned to what he called another big area, “which is the technology around net-zero, getting to net-zero, but helping make that sustainable and build economies that will be fast growing and rich, and high skilled beyond the dependence on hydrocarbons.”

Katie Jensen. (AN photo)

“There’s a lot there. Sovereign wealth funds in the region are already investing in some of these sectors. In some cases, what they’re looking for in a partnership is to bring some of those skills back home to the region so that they can be used to help build up the domestic high skills and high tech that will be needed (in the) longer term into the century to keep high-growing rich economies in the Gulf region.”

But what happens if the UK fails to sign a specific deal with the GCC as a whole? Does it then have the option to look at single individual trade deals with, say, the UAE, Saudi Arabia and Qatar?

McGrade says this has been happening in fact. “It’s been signing individual agreements across some sectors with some of the GCC members. That would continue,” he said.

“Whatever the governments do, those economic fundamentals ought to be attractive to Gulf investors, whether that’s at the state, kind of sovereign wealth fund level or kind of business level, because some of those strengths of the UK economy, innovation across several sectors, can really be part of the answer to what Gulf economies need to do and know they need to do to build sustainable, high-skilled, post-net-zero economies for the 21st century.”

As for the GCC countries’ less hawkish approach to Russia, McGrade does not see that as a hindrance to talks with the UK. “For two reasons,” he said. “There is a greater recognition of the strategic importance of the Gulf region, for the UK and for the West generally because of the war in Russia. Because of what that means for energy prices and long-term energy needs.

“The other point is that if the West is going to decouple from China, then it needs the Gulf. The Gulf states are well placed. They are in a strong position economically.”

 

 

To be sure, McGrade said, “the UK and Western governments generally always wrestle with some public opinion and campaigning groups at home on some of the values agenda. They always worry about if that can be squared off with the needs of the strategic relationship with the Gulf. That will continue to be an issue.”

Alluding to technical and political barriers to reaching a trade deal, he acknowledged that the two sides have different opinions on certain issues but said: “They are not showstoppers. The deal is doable. It’s probably more about political will in London. It would be a failure of political will if that deal isn’t done.”

McGrade was forthright about his opinions on British voters’ decision to leave the EU three years ago. “Pretty consistent polling over time suggests that an ever-growing number of the British public feel that Brexit was a mistake and has brought costs and very, very few benefits,” he said.

 

 

Nevertheless, he said, both the Conservative and Labour parties have concluded that they cannot revisit the trade deal in a fundamental way. “There is a review of the trade deal at the five-year point, which comes in 2025,” he said. “If Labour wins the election, they will want to improve the terms of the trade deal without changing its fundamental character.”

Quizzed about his personal opinion on Brexit’s costs — a weakened pound, higher inflation, trade and investment disruption, political uncertainty, loss of access to the EU single market — McGrade said it was clear that the downsides were huge and not just economic.

“The hit to Britain’s reputation for political stability, which is sort of the core of its soft power, has been in some ways even worse than the economic hit from loss of market access,” he said.

 

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Qatar replaces Russian company in Lebanon’s gas exploration

Updated 29 January 2023

Qatar replaces Russian company in Lebanon’s gas exploration

  • Country hopes discoveries of commercial quantities of fuel will help reverse economic crisis

BEIRUT: Lebanon announced on Sunday that Qatar has entered a consortium to explore for offshore gas in the Mediterranean Sea off the Lebanese coast.

The country is also counting on the participation of some other Gulf states in the consortium, a political observer said.

Lebanon is hoping the exploration and discovery of commercial quantities of oil and gas will help it overcome its current economic crisis.

The deal will see QatarEnergy receive a minority 30 percent stake in the two blocks of Lebanon’s exclusive economic zone. 

QatarEnergy joins the consortium of TotalEnergies of France and Italy’s Eni company for oil and gas exploration in the two Lebanese blocks following the withdrawal of Russia from the agreement.

Lebanon’s share would range from 54 to 63 percent after the deduction of operational and capital costs, in any instance of oil and gas discovery.

Russian company Novatek withdrew from the exploration consortium in the wake of tensions resulting from the Ukraine conflict.

It announced its withdrawal last summer due to US sanctions as the company was no longer able to make any financial transfers outside Russia.

The new agreement was signed by Walid Fayad, Lebanon’s energy minister; Saad bin Sherida Al-Kaabi, Qatar’s energy minister and president and CEO of QatarEnergy; Patrick Pouyanne, CEO of TotalEnergies; and Claudio Descalzi, CEO of Eni.

The ceremony was held at the headquarters of the Lebanese prime minister and in the presence of the ambassadors of Qatar, France and Italy.

The agreement was the result of months-long talks and coincided with practical procedures initiated by the operator to carry out exploration and drilling activities during this year.

Najib Mikati, Lebanese caretaker prime minister, paid tribute to US mediator Amos Hochstein and his team for their handling of the indirect negotiation process between Lebanon and Israel to demarcate the maritime borders at the end of last year, which resulted in an agreement.

Fayad said he hoped the deal would initiate “the beginning of a new phase that would contribute to placing Lebanon on the petroleum map in the region, and boosting its role as an investment destination.”

He added that the deal demonstrates that “[countries] still trust Lebanon, despite all the crises it is going through.”

Al-Kaabi said: “It’s not the first exploration attempt in Lebanon, but it is a serious attempt for a promising exploration in the eastern Mediterranean basin.”

He added: “We are actually present in this region and not far from here, as we have discovered gas in the Glaucus well offshore Cyprus.

"There are many elements that make this agreement important for both Lebanon and QatarEnergy. One of these elements is that it came after the maritime border demarcation agreement, which paved the way for us to begin this ambitious effort.”

The Qatari minister sent the greetings of Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al-Thani, who gave his hopes for a better future for Lebanon and its people.

Pouyanne said that “the maritime border demarcation resulted in a new momentum to explore the country’s hydrocarbon potential.”

He added: “We are determined, along with our partners, to drill an exploration well in Block 9 as soon as possible in 2023, and our teams are being fully equipped to carry out these operations.”

Pouyanne pointed out that the new deal between TotalEnergies and QatarEnergy expanded the scope of international cooperation in the exploration field, and raised the number of countries in which the two companies operate to nine.

Descalzi said: “This deal comes at a crucial time, as energy constitutes the basis of relations between the countries, and the Russian gas supply to Europe has been halted.

“I am very optimistic, especially since we are working with the best teams in this field and with the best international companies, QatarEnergy and TotalEnergies.

“We hope we will be able to achieve the desired commercial explorations for the benefit of the Lebanese people.”