Sudan’s flood misery unlocks spirit of Arab solidarity

Up to half a million people across the country have been directly affected. (AFP)
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Updated 10 September 2020

Sudan’s flood misery unlocks spirit of Arab solidarity

  • Long spell of heavier than usual rainfall has caused Blue and White Nile to overflow their banks
  • The devastating deluge is adding to an already fragile region's political and economic woes

DUBAI: Rising floodwaters following weeks of record-breaking rainfall around the sources of the Nile have claimed more than 100 lives, disrupted power and water supplies, and forced thousands to flee their homes in 17 of Sudan’s 18 states.

Almost two months after the seasonal rains began, there is little relief in sight.

Sudan’s Security and Defense Council was forced to impose a three-month national state of emergency on Sept. 4 after the death toll neared 100.




Floodwaters have damaged or destroyed more than 100,000 homes in recent weeks. (AFP)

Meanwhile, up to half a million people across the country have been directly affected, with floodwaters damaging or destroying more than 100,000 homes in recent weeks.

Heavier than usual rainfall has caused the two Niles, Blue and White, to break their banks in the capital Khartoum, where the two rivers meet. For millennia, the Nile has provided life-giving water to the deserts of northern Sudan and to Egypt, where it joins the Mediterranean Sea.

The Blue Nile supplies about 80 percent of the Nile’s water during the rainy season and reaches its maximum volume between June and September. The river is vital to the livelihood of Egypt, accounting for 59 percent of the country’s water supply, but is a major cause of the Nile overflowing its banks around this time.

The havoc in neighboring South Sudan has closely mirrored that of Sudan. Since mid-July, more than 600,000 South Sudanese have been affected by flooding in large parts of the country along the White Nile.




Heavier than usual rainfall has caused the Blue and White Niles to break their banks in the capital Khartoum. (AFP)

More suffering seems to be in store for the two peoples, with the rainy season expected to last till the end of October.

While Jonglei and Lakes are believed to be the worst-affected states, floodwaters have inundated large areas and settlements along the White Nile in central South Sudan. The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said that most displaced people have moved to higher ground near their homes and plan to return once the waters recede.




More suffering seems to be in store, with the rainy season expected to last till the end of October. (AFP)

The flooding in Sudan caused by this year’s seasonal rainfall has exceeded records set by the disasters of 1946 and 1988, according to the country’s irrigation ministry. To illustrate the severity of the situation, Yasser Abbas, the minister, pointed out that water level of the Blue Nile has reached 17.43 meters, the highest level recorded since 1912, partly due to increased rainfall in neighboring Ethiopia.

To compound Sudan’s woes, rising floodwaters resulting from continuous downpours are threatening two of its priceless archaeological sites — the ancient pyramids of Meroe on the east bank of the Nile, and the pyramids of Nuri, 350 km north of Khartoum.

SAUDI SOLIDARITY WITH SUDAN

• Saudi Arabia’s KSRelief has distributed 1,000 boxes of dates to people in the East Nile area in Khartoum state, benefiting 6,000 Sudanese.

• A Saudi plane operated by KSRelief arrived in Khartoum carrying enough supplies to help more than 30,000 people.

• Among the 90 tons of relief and food aid were 300 tents, 300 shelter bags, 1,800 blankets, 210 food baskets and 40 tons of dates.

• The aid was distributed under Saudi embassy supervision in East Nile City in Khartoum state, Umm Benin City in Sennar state, and Al-Manaqil City in Al-Jazeera state.

With forecasters predicting Sudan will experience heavy rain until the end of September, OCHA has warned of destruction over an even bigger area, as well as the spread of water-borne diseases, including cholera.

In the past two weeks, floodwaters have inundated parts of Khartoum, posing new challenges after the Sudanese military had built barricades, evacuated vulnerable neighborhoods and distributed food to the homeless. At the same time, access to clean water has become a concern as already vulnerable facilities are being contaminated by floodwater or have suffered structural damage.




The Blue Nile supplies about 80 percent of the Nile’s water during the rainy season and reaches its maximum volume between June and September. (AFP)

According to Amani Al-Taweel, a researcher and expert on Sudanese affairs at Cairo’s Al-Ahram Strategic and Political Studies Center, flooding in the country is a far from rare occurrence, as the 1988 disaster that displaced more than 1 million people and destroyed thousands of homes shows.

Sudan failed to take routine steps to reduce the impact of heavy downpours during the rainy season, Al-Taweel said.




OCHA has warned of destruction over an even bigger area, as well as the spread of water-borne diseases, including cholera. (AFP)

“Rivers should have been cleared of the silt that accumulates owing to soil erosion in the Ethiopian plateau, but this did not happen,” she told Arab News from the Egyptian capital. “Sudan should have enlarged the waterways that crisscross its agriculture lands, but this, too, has not happened.”

Could Sudan have done better with regard to water storage and management?

Al-Taweel said a shortage of effective dams is partly to blame for the latest disaster, citing the Roseires and Meroe dams as examples of structures that are ill-suited to handle the heavy rainfall that Sudan is experiencing.

Unsurprisingly, the catastrophic floods in Sudan and South Sudan have stirred speculation about a possible link between the deluge and Ethiopia’s determination to push ahead with the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile. Critics of Addis Ababa’s decision to fill the GERD reservoir say it could leave the two countries even more vulnerable in future.

Ethiopia views the GERD, which is expected to generate 6,000 megawatts of electricity, as a potential game-changer for its economy. However, Egypt, which has managed to avoid flooding since it completed the Aswan Dam in 1970s, fears a potential drop in essential water supplies from the Nile.




Mulugetta Ketema

In a recent interview with Arab News, Mulugetta Ketema, managing director of a US-based research and analysis institute, said that despite its recurring problem with Blue Nile flooding, Sudan has sided with Ethiopia.

“Sudan, and indeed every country, is looking at the issue only from its own national interest,” he said. For Sudan, the GERD, which is only 20 km from the border, could help to control flooding along with other benefits.

However, Al-Taweel doubts the claim. “We don’t have any details about the safety measures of the GERD,” she told Arab News. “It could drown Sudan. I doubt that the dam is a solution to the flooding problem in Sudan.”

More broadly, she said, “the hands of the current transitional council in Sudan, which is hoping to achieve a democratic change, are tied by a weak economy. And one of the reasons behind this weak economy is that Sudan is listed on the US State Sponsors of Terrorism list.

“The US was supposed to remove Sudan from that list more than a year ago because this regime is not responsible for the terrorist attacks that happened during the previous regime.”

Commenting on the relief supplies and aid being delivered to Khartoum by friendly Arab countries, Al-Taweel said that supporting Sudan’s “weak and fragile” health system is an urgent priority.

“Once the waters start to recede, we might see the spread of cholera and malaria, deadly diseases that could kill more people. The international community needs to act fast.”

Twitter: @jumana_khamis
Twitter: @jumanaalatamimi

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Critic of Palestinian Authority dies after violent arrest

Updated 24 June 2021

Critic of Palestinian Authority dies after violent arrest

  • Nizar Banat was a harsh critic of the PA, which governs parts of the Israeli-occupied West Bank

JERUSALEM: An outspoken critic of the Palestinian Authority who was a candidate in parliamentary elections called off earlier this year died after Palestinian security forces arrested him and beat him with an iron rod on Thursday, his family said.
Nizar Banat was a harsh critic of the PA, which governs parts of the Israeli-occupied West Bank, and had called on Western nations to cut off aid to it because of its authoritarianism and human rights violations. Earlier this week, another prominent activist was detained by the PA and held overnight after criticizing it on Facebook.
The crackdown on dissent comes as the internationally-backed PA faces a growing backlash from Palestinians who view it as corrupt and increasingly autocratic, a manifestation of a three-decade-old peace process that has yet to deliver an independent state.
Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, who was elected to a four-year term in 2005, has little to show after more than a decade of close security coordination with Israel. The 85-year-old leader has been powerless to stop the expansion of Jewish settlements, home demolitions, evictions in Jerusalem and deadly Israeli military raids, and was largely ignored during the recent unrest in Jerusalem and the 11-day Gaza war.
Western nations nevertheless view the PA as a key partner for rebuilding Gaza, which is ruled by the militant Hamas group, and eventually reviving the moribund peace process.
Ammar Banat, a cousin of the deceased, said around 25 Palestinian security forces stormed the home where Nizar was staying, blowing out doors and windows. They beat Nizar with an iron bar and sprayed pepper spray in his eyes before undressing him and dragging him away, Ammar told a local radio station, citing two other cousins who were present during the arrest.
In a brief statement, the Hebron governorate said Nizar’s “health deteriorated” when Palestinian forces went to arrest him early Thursday. It said he was taken to a hospital where he was later pronounced dead.
Representatives of the European Union and the United Nations called for an independent investigation, and Palestinian Prime Minister Mohammad Shtayyeh later announced the formation of an investigative committee. He said a doctor chosen by the family would participate in the autopsy and the family would be invited to provide testimony.
Around 100 protesters gathered in the West Bank city of Ramallah and tried to march to the PA’s headquarters. Palestinian security forces halted them and fired tear gas as scuffles broke out.
In early May, gunmen fired bullets, stun grenades and tear gas at Nizar Banat’s home near the West Bank city of Hebron, where his wife was inside with their children. He blamed the attack on Abbas’ Fatah party, which dominates the security forces, saying only they would have access to tear gas and stun grenades.
“The Europeans need to know that they are indirectly funding this organization,” he told The Associated Press in May in an interview at a home where he was hiding out. “They fire their guns into the air at Fatah celebrations, they fire their guns in the air when Fatah leaders fight each other and they fire their guns at people who oppose Fatah.”
He said prominent Fatah supporters were waging an incitement campaign against him on social media in which they accused him of collaborating with Israel, which most Palestinians view as treason. He denied the accusation, and Hamas and another militant group condemned what they referred to as his “assassination” by PA forces.
More recently, he had criticized the Palestinian leadership over an agreement in which Israel sent the PA a shipment of coronavirus vaccines that were soon to expire in exchange for fresh doses the Palestinians expect to receive later this year. The PA called off the agreement after it faced a wave of criticism on social media. Israel said the doses it sent were safe and effective.
The European Union’s delegation to the Palestinians wrote on Twitter that it was “shocked and saddened” by Banat’s death and called for a “full, independent, and transparent investigation.” The United Nation’s Mideast envoy, Tor Wennesland, also called for an investigation into the incident, saying that the “perpetrators must be brought to justice.”
Earlier this week, Palestinian security forces detained a prominent activist and held him overnight after he took to Facebook to criticize the PA’s arrest of another individual. Issa Amro is an outspoken critic of both Israel and the PA, and has been detained by both in the past. he also criticized the PA over the vaccine exchange.
A recent poll showed plummeting support for Abbas, who canceled the first elections in 15 years in April when it looked like his fractured Fatah party would suffer another humiliating defeat to Hamas. The militant group drove out forces loyal to Abbas when it seized power in Gaza in 2007.
Secretary of State Antony Blinken met with Abbas when he visited the region after the Gaza war last month, and the Biden administration is working to improve US relations with the PA after they fell to an all-time low under President Donald Trump.
The European Union has provided hundreds of millions of dollars in direct aid to the PA over the years. Earlier this week, the EU signed an agreement to provide $425 million in loans to the PA and Palestinian banks to help them cope with an economic crisis exacerbated by the coronavirus pandemic.

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Libya sees progress on removal of foreign mercenaries at Berlin talks

German Chancellor Angela Merkel welcomes Libyan Prime Minister Abdul Hamid Dbeibah in Berlin on June 23, 2021, on the sidelines of a new round of Libya peace talks. (AFP / Tobias Schwarz)
Updated 24 June 2021

Libya sees progress on removal of foreign mercenaries at Berlin talks

  • Premier urges parliament to approve election law to allow December election to go ahead

BERLIN: Libya’s foreign minister said on Wednesday international powers had made progress at talks in Berlin on the removal of foreign fighters from the country, although a final communique from the UN-backed conference specified no concrete new measures.

Libya has had little stability since a 2011 NATO-backed uprising against then-head of state Muammar Qaddafi, but a UN-led peace process brought a ceasefire last summer after fighting between rival factions paused.

Wednesday’s meeting in Berlin aimed to make progress on removing mercenaries and other foreign forces from Libya, months after the ceasefire called for their withdrawal, as well as on steps toward securing a December election.

“Hopefully within coming days mercenaries (on) both sides will be withdrawn,” Libya’s Foreign Minister Najla Mangoush told a news conference following the talks.

A senior official at the US State Department said Turkey and Russia, which back opposing sides in Libya, had reached an initial understanding to work toward a target of pulling out 300 Syrian mercenaries from each side of the conflict.

HIGHLIGHT

A US State Department official said it was unrealistic to think a full withdrawal of foreign fighters would come overnight and that it would be a phased approach.

German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas also said he believed there was an understanding between Russia and Turkey on a step-by-step withdrawal of their fighters.

“This will not mean that everybody will take their mercenaries back overnight,” he said. The talks were also attended by US Secretary of State Antony Blinken.

A second State Department official said it was unrealistic to think a full withdrawal of foreign fighters would come overnight and that it would be a phased approach.

“Getting at what we think is one of the key de-stabilizing elements, the presence of these foreign fighters, Syrians, Chadians, Sudanese, that is an important first step and it’s not something we had before,” the official said.

Libyan Prime Minister Abdulhamid Dbeiba called on Libya’s parliament to approve an election law to allow the December election to go ahead and to pass his government’s budget.

“Unfortunately, we have not yet seen the necessary seriousness from the legislative bodies,” he said.


Israel army chief says cooperation with US against Iran ‘unprecedented’

Updated 23 June 2021

Israel army chief says cooperation with US against Iran ‘unprecedented’

  • Lt. Gen. Aviv Kohavi's remarks came the same day as Iran said it had foiled a sabotage attack on an atomic energy agency building
  • Israel staunchly opposes the deal, which it fears could enable its arch-nemesis to obtain nuclear weapons.

JERUSALEM: Israel’s army chief on Wednesday hailed “unprecedented” cooperation with the US, as he wrapped up a US visit focused on preventing Tehran from obtaining military nuclear capabilities.
Lt. Gen. Aviv Kohavi’s remarks came the same day as Iran said it had foiled a sabotage attack on an atomic energy agency building, as talks continue in Vienna between Tehran and world powers aimed at reviving their 2015 nuclear deal.
Israel staunchly opposes the deal, which it fears could enable its arch-nemesis to obtain nuclear weapons.
Kohavi’s visit, which began on Sunday, also came four weeks since Israel and Gaza’s Palestinian Islamist rulers Hamas agreed a cease-fire ending 11 days of heavy fighting.
At the US military’s Central Command in Florida, Kohavi met Centcom commander General Frank McKenzie, where he discussed the Gaza war, the Syrian arena and coordination between the countries.
“The IDF’s operational cooperation with the US military is unprecedented in its scope and has reached new heights,” Kohavi said in a statement, using the acronym for Israel defense forces.
“The mutual and main goal of action for the two armies is thwarting Iranian aggression,” he added.
“Iran seeks to establish and entrench terrorists in many countries (and) continues to pose a regional threat in terms of nuclear proliferation, advanced weapons systems including ballistic missile capabilities, and the financing of terrorist armies,” the Israeli general said.
Kohavi was also meeting with US National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan on “Iran’s regional entrenchment throughout the Middle East and the flaws” of the nuclear deal with Iran, a statement from the military said.
In meetings with Sullivan and CIA head William Burns, Kohavi was “presenting multiple ways to prevent Iran from acquiring military nuclear capabilities,” the army said.
Kohavi was due to return to Israel on Friday.


More blackouts ahead as Lebanon generators starved of fuel

Updated 23 June 2021

More blackouts ahead as Lebanon generators starved of fuel

  • National network run by Electricité du Liban is prone to blackouts as some areas only gets provided power for 2 hours a day
  • Many Lebanese pay a separate bill for a backup from neighbourhood generators run by private firms

BEIRUT: The owners of private generators that provide a vital backup to Lebanon’s decrepit power grid warned Wednesday of their own cuts due to lack of fuel as the country’s economic crisis deepens.
The national network run by Electricité du Liban is prone to blackouts and in some areas only manages to provide power for two hours a day.
That forces many Lebanese to pay a separate bill for a backup from neighborhood generators run by private firms.
With the Lebanese economy facing its worst crisis in a generation and the currency in freefall, private suppliers have warned they are struggling to secure enough fuel to keep running.
The crisis is so acute that on Wednesday the lights went out in a building belonging to the foreign ministry, forcing employees to stop work, Lebanese media reported.
“Generator owners in several regions started telling customers on Wednesday that they would not be able to provide electricity for lack of mazout,” a widely used petrol derivative, said Abdu Saadeh, head of a syndicate for generator owners.
“We had warned late last week that the stocks would start running dry... and so far we haven’t found a solution.”
Lebanon has been roiled since autumn 2019 by an economic crisis the World Bank says is likely to rank among the world’s worst financial crises since the mid-19th century.
The collapse has sparked outrage at Lebanon’s political class, seen as woefully corrupt and unable to tackle the country’s many difficulties.
Officials have blamed the current fuel shortages on stockpiling by traders and a surge of fuel smuggling into Syria.
Several people have been arrested on suspicion of smuggling in recent weeks, according to the police.
The central bank has set up a mechanism to subsidise fuels by up to 85 percent, but fuel importers have accused it of failing to implement the program.
The head of public Internet provider Ogero has warned that electricity cuts could also threaten Lebanon’s access to the web.

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World powers in new push for Libya peace

Updated 23 June 2021

World powers in new push for Libya peace

BERLIN: Germany and the United Nations are bringing together representatives of Libya with powers that have interests in the country at a conference Wednesday which aims for progress toward securing elections in the North African nation and the removal of foreign fighters.
The meeting at the foreign ministry in Berlin, with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken among participants, follows up on a January 2020 conference where leaders agreed to respect an arms embargo and to push the country’s warring parties to reach a full cease-fire. Germany has tried to act as an intermediary.
Countries that have been involved in the process include the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, along with Italy, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates.
Ahead of the conference, German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas noted that much has been achieved in the past two years. An October cease-fire agreement that included a demand that all foreign fighters and mercenaries leave Libya within 90 days led to a deal on elections, due to be held on Dec. 24, and a transitional government that took office in February.
But “many challenges still lie ahead of us,” said Maas. “For the further stabilization of the country, it is crucial that elections take place as planned and that foreign fighters and mercenaries really do leave Libya.”
He added that Wednesday’s conference launches a new phase “in which we no longer only talk about Libya, but in which we are now speaking with Libyan men and women about the future of their country.”
Blinken said that “we share the goal of a sovereign, stable, unified, secure Libya free from foreign interference — it’s what the people of Libya deserve, it’s critical to regional security as well.”
“For that to happen, national elections need to go forward in December and that means urgent agreement is needed on constitutional and legal issues that would undergird those elections,” he said at a news conference with Maas. “And the Oct. 23 cease-fire agreement has to be fully implemented, including by withdrawing all foreign forces from Libya.”
The US special envoy for Libya, Richard Norland, said it was important to start bringing all armed groups in the country under a joint military command. “When foreign forces leave, they’re going to need to be replaced by a viable united Libyan national military and police structure,” he said.
Meanwhile, aid group Doctors Without Borders said this week it was suspending its activities in two detention centers in Tripoli after “repeated incidents of violence toward refugees and migrants held there.” It said staff had witnessed guards beating detainees at one center and received reports of people being shot at in another.
Libya has been a key transit country for migrants from Africa trying to reach Europe, especially after the collapse of order when a NATO-backed uprising toppled and later killed longtime dictator Muammar Qaddafi in 2011. The oil-rich country was long divided between a UN-supported government in the capital, Tripoli, and rival authorities based in the country’s east, each backed by armed groups and foreign governments.
In April 2019, eastern-based commander Khalifa Haftar and his forces, backed by Egypt and the United Arab Emirates, launched an offensive to try to capture Tripoli. Haftar’s 14-month campaign collapsed after Turkey stepped up its military support of the UN-backed government with hundreds of troops and thousands of Syrian mercenaries.
Little progress has been made so far on getting foreign forces out of Libya. Jalel Harchaoui, a senior fellow at the Geneva-based Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime who follows Libya closely, said that it is the presence of foreign mercenaries, acting as a sort of deterrent, that has led to the current, if uneasy, peace.
“That’s what it comes down to, and of course it’s not politically correct to say,” he said. He cautioned that elections could deepen polarization if conducted too hastily.