Pearls of wisdom: Japan’s cultured farms still glisten

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An employee of Mikimoto jewellery displays a neckless, earings and a ring made of cultured Akoya pearls in Tokyo on December 4, 2018. (AFP)
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A farmer of the Sakaguchi Akoya pearl farm displays oysters with pearls on a table in Shima on October 12, 2018. (AFP)
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A farmer of the Sakaguchi Akoya pearl farm displays oysters with pearls on a table in Shima on October 12, 2018. (AFP)
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A farmer of the Sakaguchi Akoya pearl farm removes a net of oysters in Shima on October 12, 2018. (AFP)
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An employee of Mikimoto jewellery poses with a neckless made of cultured Akoya pearls in Tokyo on December 4, 2018. (AFP)
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An employee of Mikimoto jewellery tries a neckless made of cultured Akoya pearls in Tokyo on December 4, 2018. (AFP)
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An employee of Mikimoto jewellery tries a neckless made of cultured Akoya pearls in Tokyo on December 4, 2018. (AFP)
Updated 09 April 2019

Pearls of wisdom: Japan’s cultured farms still glisten

  • Only around five percent of the oysters harvested will result in pearls of sufficient quality to adorn the windows of chic jewellers far away in Tokyo

SHIMA, Japan: In Japan’s picturesque Ago Bay, a couple sits in a little hut picking out oysters from a net, cleaning them carefully one-by-one before replacing them gently back in the water.
Their hope: in several months, these oysters will produce a glistening white pearl from a cultured farming technique invented in Japan that is in decline as experts die out in the aging country.
Cultured pearl farming was first commercialized in Ago Bay and spread throughout the world. There are still dozens of farms plying the trade there, which look from the sky like a series of rafts floating between the steep coast and a string of tiny islets.
In 1893, an Ago Bay local called Kokichi Mikimoto became worried the oyster pearls avidly sought in his waters were becoming extinct.
So he began introducing artificial foreign bodies into the oysters in a bid to replicate the natural process in which they secrete thousands of layers of nacre when a grain of sand or shell finds its way inside the pearl pocket.
After several setbacks — including a bacterial virus that decimated his crop — Mikimoto finally hit the jackpot: one day in July 1893 a semi-spherical pearl appeared, clinging to the oyster.
A decade or so later, he had refined his method to produce a perfectly round specimen and immediately patented his technique — the cultured pearl.
Success was not immediate — several viewed the cultured pearl as a vulgar replica of the “natural” variety — but eventually Mikimoto built a global empire and Japan became the reference for the small pearls known as “Akoya.”
Around the same time, two other Japanese, Tatsuhei Mise and Tokichi Nishikawa, applied for a patent.

The Sakaguchi family has been crafting these valuable pearls between three and 10 millimeters in diameter for three generations. Kasuhiro, 73, and Misayo, 68, are now supported by daughter Ruriko.
“Our job is to look after the oysters as well as we can for three to four years,” explained the energetic 43-year-old Ruriko, sporting an apron and headscarf.
“From harvesting the young oysters, introducing the graft, right up to extracting the pearl,” she added, as she dragged oysters from the net for inspection.

The whole delicate operation rests of the insertion of a nucleus — a small round polished ball made out of shellfish — and the “graft,” a piece of donor mantle tissue from another oyster.
Over a period of several months, the oyster reacts to the foreign bodies by secreting thousands of layers of nacre which form the pearl.
The pearls are harvested in December, when the water is around 15 degrees, said Ruriko. “Below this, the pearl will lack strength. Above that, it will lack shine,” she explained.
It is a thankless task. Of the 100,000 oysters harvested annually, half die immediately after the operation.
The vast majority produce either mediocre pearls or nothing at all. Only around five percent of the oysters harvested will result in pearls of sufficient quality to adorn the windows of chic jewellers far away in Tokyo.

The Sakaguchis are lucky to have Ruriko take up the family trade, which is suffering — like many other traditional Japanese crafts — from an aging population and a flight from the country to booming cities.
The number of specialized pearl farmers has dropped from 3,760 in the 1960s to just 680 in 2013, according to the most recent data from the Fisheries Agency.
But despite this, Japan still dominates the global market, accounting for around 30 percent in terms of value — helped by concentrating on the best quality pearls.
Japan has produced around 20 tons of farmed pearls annually over the past 10 years, bringing in around 16.6 billion yen, and is aiming to reach 20 billion yen by 2027.
But even that would be a far cry from the heady days of the late 1980s when Japan produced around 70 tons with a value of 88 billion yen.
So what sets Japanese cultured pearls apart from competitors in Tahiti, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines or Australia?
Aside from centuries of know-how, Japan is helped by its climate, said Yuichi Nakamura, vice-chairman of the Mie Pearl promotion council.
“The key is the winter season in Japan. It gives the pearls a better shine and sets them apart from the rest of world,” Nakamura told AFP.
Rivals from China at one point looked set to threaten Japan’s dominance but “they focused in quantity... whereas we concentrated on quality to stay in the race.”
That quality is on glittering display at the luxurious, multistory flagship store of Mikimoto, in the plush Tokyo district of Ginza.
Here a mannequin wears a priceless pearl necklace but pearls can range from a few hundred to a million dollars.
“For the Japanese, pearls are a family heirloom. We give them as necklaces to women about to marry or as earrings or rings,” said Mikimoto boss Hiroshi Yoshida.
They then wear them at grand occasions for the rest of their lives.
But perhaps an indication of a shift in the global economy: more than half of Mikimoto’s customers are Chinese. After them come Americans, other Asians such as Singaporeans, and then Europeans.


Australian man survives croc attack by gouging its eye

Updated 16 November 2019

Australian man survives croc attack by gouging its eye

  • Wildlife ranger Craig Dickmann made a split-second decision to go fishing in a remote part of Northern Australia known as ‘croc country.’
  • ‘That noise will haunt me forever I think, the sound of the snap of its jaws’

CAIRNS, Australia: An Australian wildlife ranger has recounted his terrifying escape from the clutches of a “particularly cunning” crocodile, after wrestling with the reptile and sticking a finger in its eye.
Craig Dickmann, who made a split-second decision to go fishing last Sunday in a remote part of Northern Australia known as “croc country” last Sunday, said a 2.8-meter (nine-foot) crocodile came up from behind him as he was leaving the beach.
“As I’ve turned to go, the first thing I see is its head just come at me,” he told reporters on Friday from his hospital bed in the town of Cairns in Queensland state.
Dickmann said the animal latched on to his thigh.
“That noise will haunt me forever I think, the sound of the snap of its jaws,” he said.
The 54-year-old said he wrestled with the croc on the remote beach as it tried to drag him into the water.
Dickmann stuck his thumb into its eye, saying it was the only “soft spot” he found on the “bullet-proof” animal.
“Their eyes retract a fair way and when you go down far enough you can feel bone so I pushed as far as I possibly could and then it let go at that point,” Dickmann said.
After a few minutes, he said he managed to get on top of the croc and pin its jaws shut.
“And then, I think both the croc and I had a moment where we’re going, ‘well, what do we do now?’”
Dickmann said he then pushed the croc away from him and it slid back into the water.
The ranger had skin ripped from his hands and legs in the ordeal and drove more than 45 minutes back to his home before calling emergency services.
It was then another hour in the car to meet the Royal Flying Doctors Service who flew him to Cairns Hospital, where he is recovering from the ordeal.
“This croc was particularly cunning and particularly devious,” he said.
Queensland’s department of environment this week euthanized the animal.
“The area is known croc country and people in the area are reminded to always be crocwise,” the department said in a statement.
Saltwater crocodiles, which can grow up to seven meters long and weigh more than a ton, are common in the vast continent’s tropical north.
Their numbers have exploded since they were declared a protected species in the 1970s, with attacks on humans rare.
According to the state government, the last non-fatal attack was in January 2018 in the Torres Strait while the last death was in October 2017 in Port Douglas.