Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann dead at 89

In this Nov. 14, 2003, file photo, Santa Fe Institute co-founder Murray Gell-Mann, winner of the 1969 Nobel Prize for physics, is seen Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, N.M. (AP)
Updated 27 May 2019
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Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann dead at 89

  • Born in New York City on September 15, 1929, Gell-Mann was encouraged to study physics by his father, and earned a doctorate in the subject from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951

WASHINGTON: Murray Gell-Mann, a physicist who theorized the existence of the quark and won a Nobel Prize for his method of classifying particles, has died at age 89, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) said.
Considered among the most important physicists of the 20th century, the American scientist theorized in the 1960s that subatomic particles — protons and neutrons — were composed of paired subunits he called quarks.
Experiments later confirmed the existence of the particles, which are a continuing subject of study by physicists including those at the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful proton smasher straddling the French-Swiss border.
Amid an explosion of research into what makes up matter in the 1950s and 1960s, Gell-Mann came up with a criteria for putting particles in groups of eight based on characteristics like electric charge and spin.
He called it the “eightfold way,” Caltech said, and was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for the innovation.
Born in New York City on September 15, 1929, Gell-Mann was encouraged to study physics by his father, and earned a doctorate in the subject from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951.
He taught at Caltech in Pasadena, California from 1955 until his retirement in 1993.
“Dr. Gell-Mann had this clear vision and penetrating insight to look through the large amounts of data that were coming from experiments and make sense of it,” Hirosi Ooguri, a professor at Caltech and director of the school’s Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, said in an obituary published by the university.
“He opened a new paradigm in particle physics.”


Berry versatile: Falsa rules the roost as Pakistan’s most favored summer fruit

Updated 16 June 2019
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Berry versatile: Falsa rules the roost as Pakistan’s most favored summer fruit

  • From kulfis and juices to pickles, the tangy-sweet fruit is on most checklists
  • Restaurants put on their thinking caps by adding it to traditional dishes and drinks

ISLAMABAD: When it comes to berries, falsa remains the top pick for Pakistanis in this scorching heat, with several food and beverage outlets reaching out for the versatile fruit to pack a punch in their choice of menus.
With its botanical name as Grewia Asiatica, falsa or phalsa traces its roots to South Asia and is very similar to the blueberry.
Demand for the tangy-sweet fruit reaches a fever pitch in summer when restaurants and bakeries dole out falsa-based desserts, juices and smoothies.
One such food outlet is Funky Pop, an ice-cream retailer which is popular for its fresh fruit popsicles that are devoid of artificial flavours or added sugar. Watch out for their falsa popsicles available at their outlet in F10 Markaz, or if creamy Italian ice cream is more up your alley, right around the corner at Manolo Gelato in F11 markaz they are serving up falsa hype with a special availability of falsa gelato.
Close on the heels of Funky Pop is Sooper Scooperz in Islamabad’s Jinnah Market, whose rich and seasonal juices are a favorite among locals and visitors alike. New on their menu is the falsa juice which can be devoured on its own or blended with a combination of other fruits.
Not one to be limited to juices and popsicles, the fruit – with the help of Karachi-based Tempting Bites by Zee – is pushing the envelope by adding a little bit of glamor to the humble kulfi as well.
The retailer which delivers the delight at home too, has been churning out cups of the icecream for years now and is very popular among residents in the metro.
Shehreen Farhan who runs a bakery in Bara Kahu, Islamabad says the fruit has been an industry favorite, mostly for its versatility, as it can jazz up any classic desserts.
“Cobblers (that are traditionally made with apples and peaches), pies and fruit tarts are so easy to modify by using falsa in place of berries and other fruits,” she said, adding that “fruit tarts are our best falsa seller.”
A more desi spin to the fruit is by using it in fruit chaats and salads, as well as boiling it down to jams and syrups or as a tangy replacement for regular chutneys and achaars (pickles).