Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann dead at 89

In this Nov. 14, 2003, file photo, Santa Fe Institute co-founder Murray Gell-Mann, winner of the 1969 Nobel Prize for physics, is seen Santa Fe Institute in Santa Fe, N.M. (AP)
Updated 27 May 2019
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Nobel Prize-winning physicist Murray Gell-Mann dead at 89

  • Born in New York City on September 15, 1929, Gell-Mann was encouraged to study physics by his father, and earned a doctorate in the subject from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951

WASHINGTON: Murray Gell-Mann, a physicist who theorized the existence of the quark and won a Nobel Prize for his method of classifying particles, has died at age 89, the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) said.
Considered among the most important physicists of the 20th century, the American scientist theorized in the 1960s that subatomic particles — protons and neutrons — were composed of paired subunits he called quarks.
Experiments later confirmed the existence of the particles, which are a continuing subject of study by physicists including those at the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s most powerful proton smasher straddling the French-Swiss border.
Amid an explosion of research into what makes up matter in the 1950s and 1960s, Gell-Mann came up with a criteria for putting particles in groups of eight based on characteristics like electric charge and spin.
He called it the “eightfold way,” Caltech said, and was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize in Physics for the innovation.
Born in New York City on September 15, 1929, Gell-Mann was encouraged to study physics by his father, and earned a doctorate in the subject from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1951.
He taught at Caltech in Pasadena, California from 1955 until his retirement in 1993.
“Dr. Gell-Mann had this clear vision and penetrating insight to look through the large amounts of data that were coming from experiments and make sense of it,” Hirosi Ooguri, a professor at Caltech and director of the school’s Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, said in an obituary published by the university.
“He opened a new paradigm in particle physics.”


Three Dubai-based fashionistas explain style differences between Pakistan and the UAE

Updated 25 August 2019
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Three Dubai-based fashionistas explain style differences between Pakistan and the UAE

  • The two countries share a Muslim majority, hot climate and a love of Pakistani fashion designers
  • But when it comes to style, both countries have radically different approaches

ISLAMABAD: Dubai and Pakistan share many things: a Muslim majority, hot climate and a love of Pakistani fashion designers. However, when it comes to style, both countries have radically different approaches. Arab News spoke to prominent Pakistanis in the world of fashion to ask them what set Dubai style apart from Pakistan.
Jahanara Amin Mir, Lawyer, living in Dubai
"If we break it down, when I wake up in Pakistan my biggest struggle is how much skin can I show? Here in Dubai that hurdle does not exist. The first thing I think when I wake up is ‘ok, how do I want to express myself today?’
I love that I can go in a café and see someone in an abaya and underneath she has on high waisted pants and a crop top. I love that you can see someone in a bikini and then right next to that person is someone in a burkini swimming harmoniously in the same open water. As long as there is a modicum of respect of cultures, Dubai is very tolerant with respect to what people wear.
If you want to see true style you go out on the town in Dubai on Thursday Night and see how local women dress up and how much thought they put in their bags and shoes, because that is the only way they can express themselves if they are going to wear an abaya. The way they do their hair and nails they pay attention to details that you don’t really pay attention to in other countries.
Dubai gets a bad rep in terms of style, people assume you have to dress head to toe in designer labels and that is not the case at all. It’s not superficial what struck me, was when I moved here is I work with people from Africa, Australia, and Europe and their aesthetics are drawn from their home countries and that is what is beautiful and diverse and amazing about their style here. It is not uniform, it is not one flavour.
In Pakistan we don’t necessarily have that diversity on the streets. What I love about style in Pakistan is people do not take themselves that seriously, they are just naturally beautiful, so they rock  shalwar kameez, throw on some kajol and light jewellery and that’s their form of expression. When I go to Pakistan I focus on the simplicity. The playfulness of Dubai is what I love about it. I can be simple if I want. I can be understated the top and wear a gown if I want to and no one will really bat and eye because it’s Dubai and that is freeing and colourful about style here.”
Zahra Raza, Founder Luxury Boulevard and Popsicle Pop Up Concept, living in Dubai
“Living in Dubai, is having best of both worlds. It’s as eastern or as western you want it to be be it food, culture or entertainment. It’s very different from Pakistan in terms of safety, quality of life and the most importantly, the law is the same for all expats.
Fashion in Dubai is incredible because you see all kinds of people, wearing Abaya or no Abaya, everyone is accepted. People are aware of new trends and are very fashion conscious, one  has access to international luxury brands and high street brands. For me who was working their full time, was easy to purchase suits for work meeting, or casual clothes just for a coffee with friends. You work hard but you have access to the top restaurants, fashion stores, lifestyle products, high quality cinemas, malls and most of all safety.”
Sabah Malik, College Graduate living in the UAE
"Being in Dubai I have found  that you have to keep up with trends or else you will stick out for the wrong reasons. Dubai style is very ‘this outfit needs to be instagram worthy.’ I feel like that is a lot of peoples’ first priority when it comes to style, sure everyone has their own personal fashion preferences and their own unique taste but I feel like it is all still the ‘same’ if that makes sense. From what I’ve seen in Pakistan and on social media from stylish Pakistani accounts it is more mixed and less of just one “style.” Pakistan has a more of a ‘I want to wear this so I will’ mentality which I personally prefer, it doesn’t seem like everyone’s trying to compete or follow the latest trends and evidently dress the same as each other.”
Meeral Khan, Marketing Manager, living in Dubai
“Fashion in Dubai has a massive range of eastern and western wear. Even if you look at the abaya, you have traditional abayas and then people who will add an element of style into their abayas, whether this is through different sleeves or patterns and designs on the abaya itself. In Pakistan, generally speaking, a vast majority of people tend to wear regionally inspired outfits, there is less western wear culture than in Dubai.
I believe women in both countries take their aesthetic and expression seriously and place huge importance on style, through designer fashion, hair & makeup both.
Style even down to home decor differs. There are two styles in Dubair, opulent classic, with a love of gold and being a new city, the ultra modern look. People also tend to update very rapidly. Whereas in Pakistan, it’s generally more subtle, and you have more of a mix of modern and classic. Dubai being a place of experimentation, pushes boundaries in terms of architecture and design more.”