Rasul Bakhsh Rais is Professor of Political Science in the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, LUMS, Lahore. His latest book is “Islam, Ethnicity and Power Politics: Constructing Pakistan’s National Identity” (Oxford University Press, 2017). @RasulRais
How people vote depends on the nature of a society, particularly its social structures, demographic characteristics, social development and democratic depth. What is therefore important to understand about voting behavior is the general social and political environment of a country.
Manifestos are programs of proposed actions to solve national problems, demonstrate political commitments, and establish social contracts with the electorate. In a nutshell, they are policy prescriptions to win the support of specific constituencies in electoral politics.